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$3.00 February, 1985 

Volume 17, Number 2 

Aplysia (Varria) dactylomela Rang, 1828. 380 mm specimen. Drawing by 
C. Headley, 1923 after J. Stuart, 1841. Reprinted by permission of the 
British Musem (Natural History) via N.B. Eales. 

IN THIS ISSUE: American Malacological Union 
"Common Names List" for North American Mollusks. 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


formerly the OPISTHOBRANCH 

Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor David K. Mulliner 

Contributing Editor Tom Rice 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Kerry B. Clark 
Walter O. Cernohorsky Malcolm Edmunds 

Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner 

Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance 

George L. Kennedy T.E. Thompson 
William G. Lyons 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known 
The magazine is open to articles and notes on 
any aspect of malacology or related marine life. 
Articles submitted for publication are subject to 
editorial board review and may include coloror 
black & white illustrations. Short notes [less 
than 500 words] will normally appear in 
Articles should be submitted typed and double- 
spaced. For additional information send forfree 
booklet "Suggestions to Contributors". 

Short articles containing descriptions of new 
or repositioned taxa will be given priority 
provided the holotype(s) have been deposited 
with a recognised public museum and museum 
numbers are included with the manuscript. We 
undertake no responsibility for unsolicited 
material sent for possible inclusion in the 
publication. No material submited will be 
returned unless accompanied by return postage 
and packing. Authors will receive 10 free 
reprint 8 of their article. Additional reprints may 
be purchased. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE ISSN 0747-6078 is 
published monthly for $24 per year by Steven J. 
Long & Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, 
Phoenix, AZ 85012. Second-Class Postage Paid 
at Phoenix, AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Telephone (602) 
274-3615. Outside U.S. postal ZIP code areas, 
add $5 surface or $30 air mail postage. Library 
basic rate is $36/year plus applicable postage. 
Send change of address 6 weeks in advance. 
Charge to remail issue for any reason $3.50. 
Sample copies are available for $3.50 each 
postpaid. Rates subject to change without 

O Copyright Steven J. Long it Sally Bennett 1985 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 43 


Here is the end of the American Malacological Union's "Common 
Names List." We decided that it was better to get it all out of the way 
with one oversize issue and get back into a normal color format with 
the March issue. All comments for the list should be sent to Dr. Donna 
Turgeon as soon as possible to be presented at the annual meeting in 
Rhode Island. 

Reports on our January issue are very favorable. We hope to 
continue the positive trend with our upcoming articles. The February 
issue should arrive in the late part of April (in the U.S.) with the March 
and April color issues mailed near the end of April and early May 
respectively. We hope that the printing works well and that the issues 
after May can be mailed early in the issue month. We can still use all 
the help we can get with renewals and new subscriptions. Tell your 
friends about SHELLS and SEA LIFE and pass on flyers and brochures 
when you are through with them. 

Once again, we have had to change printers to keep our costs from 
doubling. Our friends at Whitten Printers helped us get this issue out 
while we are finishing up the March and April issues with our new 
printer. Each issue will have many color photos and excellent articles. 
We have several new authors to introduce along with more from R. 
Tucker Abbott, Emily Vokes, I.S. Roginskaya, Hans Bertsch, Dave 
Behrens and others. 

Thanks for all of the help with articles, reprints and notes. Thanks 
to R.T. Abbott, Roland Anderson, Walter O. Cernohorsky, Jerry 
DeGraaf, Don-L's, William K. Emerson, Richie Goldberg, Miguel L. 
Jaume, Paula Mikkelson, Tom Rice, Walter Sage, Tom Shepherd, Emily 
H. Vokes, Harold E. Vokes, R.C. Willan, and others, for information and 
material. Special thanks to Eveline Marcus for her generous donation 
and to Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert Davis for their patience and help with the 
magazine during their visit this year. 

We have added about 500 square feet of working space to our facility 
in the past two months and several thousand dollars' worth of 
equipment. At last, we have our research library nearby and in good 
order so that we can find things when people call in with questions on 
our books for sale. We are also set up to produce the thousands of pages 
of book catalogs and antiquarian lists we need in house. We hope to be 
able to include any large "species lists" as supplements to S&SL by 
printing ourselves and keep the glossy pages and color for articles and 
animal photos. The weather in Phoenix is already getting hot and we 
had to finish up our building project now or melt in a few more weeks. 

44 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 

Suggested Draft List of Common Names 
for Mollusks Occurring from America 
North of Mexico." 

American Malacological Union 


Common Names List — Announcement. S&SL 16(9):142. 

Principles Governing Selection of Common Names of Aquatic 
Invertebrates from America North of Mexico. S&SL 16(9):143- 

Terrestrial Mollusks. S&SL 16(10):167-174. 

Marine Gastropods. S&SL 16(1 1):199-203. 

Marine Gastropods. Part 2. S&SL 16(12):227-230, 235-238. 

Marine Gastropods. Part 3. S&SL 17(l):17-25. 

Freshwater Gastropods. S&SL 17(2):48-55. 

Solenogasters. S&SL 17(2):56. 

Tuskshells & Toothshells. S&SL 17(2):56-57. 

Cephalopods. S&SL 17(2):58-59. 

Freshwater Bivalves. S&SL 17(2):60-65. 

Marine Bivalves. S&SL 17(2):66-82. 

Chitons. S&SL 17(2):83-85. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 45 



National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 

Washington. D.C. 20235 

JAN 25 1985 


Mr. Steve Long 
Shells and Sea Life 
505 E. Pasadena 
Phoenix, AZ 85012 

Dear Steve, 

The draft list of terrestrial mollusks published in the 
October issue of Shells and Sea Life has been extensively revised 
(1) to include notations for introduced species, (2) to correct 
typing errors, and (3) to respond to comments. Recent literature 
elevates the Carychiidae to family status and is now on the 
list. The status of Monadenia marmoratis Berry, 1940 has been 
changed to " incerta sedis" . The gastronomic common name 
"dessertsnail" is again the author's designated "desertsnail" . My 
apologies; it looked good. 

The subspecies on the list, commented upon by Jack W. 
Brookshire, are requested by the authors of each taxonomic group 
to remain for the following reasons. 

° Sterkia eryiesi rhodsi is the only form of that species 
occurring in North America. 

° Cerion chrysalis f astigatum and C_. sculp turn marieleinum 
are Cuban taxa introduced into the Florida Keys. 

Orthal icus reses nesodryas is on a State list a: 
"special concern" and 0. r. reses is listed as 
"endangered" on State and Federal lists. 

Eighteen zonitid, one succineid, and one vitrinid 
subspecies are included on the list as items of special 
concern. Additionally, the authors note that the 
literature for these is not decisive and feel that all 
may be distinct species. 

The seven polygyrid subspecies are included because of 
their special consideration for conservation. 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 

Humboltiana hoegiana praesidii is considered by the 
author as probably a distinct species from that of JK 
h. hoegiana in Mexico. 

Because extensive use of the terms "shell", "clam", and 
"snail" are discouraged, the common names for three ammoni tellidi 
were changed by the committee who developed the list. 
Ammonite 11a yatesi is the "tight coin", Polygyrela polygrella is 
the "hump coin", and Polygyroidea harfordiana is the "toothed 
coin" . 

Any further comments on this list are encouraged. Comments 
may be sent to the committee chairman, Dr. Donna D. Turgeon, 
Regulations Branch Chief, F/M12, National Marine Fisheries 
Service, Page Bldg. II, 3300 Whitehaven Street, N.W. Washington, 
D.C. 20235; phone 202-634-7432. 

Sirfcerely your-*, 

|onna D. Turgeon 

Occurrence Code 

A ■ Atlantic coast of North America from boundary with Arctic 
Ocean south to U.S. -Mexico border, including coast of Gulf of 
Mexico from Florida through Texas; Ac ■ waters of Arctic Ocean 
contiguous to North America; E = estuarine (exclusively); F ■ 
freshwater in addition to saltwater; [I] ■ introduced, intent- 
ionally or accidentally, by human activity; P = Pacific coast 
of North America from Bering Strait south to U.S. -Mexico border 
Designations in parentheses denote extralimital occurrence 
beyond the scope of this listing. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 47 





Neritina reclivata (Say, 1822) F,E olive nerite 


Valvata bicarinata Lea, 1841 F tworidged valvata 

Valvata humeralis Say, 1829 F glossy valvata 

Valvata lewisi Currier, 1 868 F fringed valvata 

Valvata mergella Westerlund, 1883 F rams-horn valvata 

Valvata perdepressa Walker, 1906 F purplecap valvata 

Valvata piscinalis (Muller, 1774) F European stream valvata 

Valvata sincera Say, 1 824 F mossy valvata 

Valvata tricarinata (Say, 1817) F threeridged valvata 

Valvata utahensis Call, 1 884 F desert valvata 

Valvata virens Tryon, 1863 F emerald valvata 

Valvata winnebagoensis Baker, 1928 F flanged valvata 


Campeloma brevispirum Baker, 1928 F incerta sedis 

Campeloma crassula Raf inesque, 1819 F ponderous campeloma 

Campeloma decampi (Binney, 1 865) F slender campeloma 

Campeloma decisum (Say, 1817) F pointed campeloma 

Campeloma exilis (Anthony, 1 860) F incerta sedis 

Campeloma floridense Call, 1886 F purple-throated campeloma 

Campeloma geniculum (Conrad, 1 8 34) F ovate campeloma 

Campeloma gibbum (Currier, 1867) F incerta sedis 

CampelornlT leptum Mattox, 1940 F incerta sedis 

Campeloma lewisi Walker, 1915 F incerta sedis 

Campeloma limum (Anthony, 1 860) F file campeloma 

Campeloma milesT (Lea, 1863) F incerta sedis 

Campeloma parthenum Vail, 1 979 F maiden campeloma 

Campeloma regulare (Lea, 1841) F cylinder campeloma 

Campeloma" ruftim TRaldeman, 1841) F incerta sedis 

Campeloma tannum Mattox, 1940 F incerta sedis 

Cipangopaludina chlnensis malleata 

(Reeve, 1863H/ F Chinese mysterysnail 

Cipangopaludina japonica (Martens, 1 86 1 ) J/ F Japanese mysterysnail 

Lioplax cyclostomaformis (Lea, 1841) F cylindrical lioplax 

Lioplax pilsbryi Walker, 1905 F Choctaw lioplax 

Lioplax subcarinata (Say, 1816) F ridged lioplax 

Lioplax Fulculosa (Menke, 1827) F furrowed lioplax 

Lioplax talquinensis Vail, 1979 F incerta sedis 

Tulotoma magnifica (Conrad, 1 834) F , . . tulotoma 

Viviparus georgianus (Lea, 1834) F banded mysterysnail 

Viviparus intertextus (Say, 1 829) F rotund mysterysnail 

Viviparus subpurpureus (Say, 1829) F olive mysterysnail 

Pilidae [ = Ampullariidael 

Marisa cornuarietis (Linnaeus, 1758) 1/ F goldenhorn marisa 

PomaceiTbridgesi (Reeve, 1 856H/ F spiketopped applesnail 

Pomacea paludosa (Say, 1829) F Florida applesnail 


Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758)2/ F mud bithynia 


Amnicola aldrichi (Call and Beecher, 1886) F Hoosier amnicola 

Amnicola bakeriana Pilsbry, 1917 F incerta sedis 

V Introduced species 

48 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Amnicola clarki Pilsbry, 1917 F incerta sedis 

Amnicola cora Hubricht, 1979 F Foushee cavesnail 

Amnicola dalli (Pilsbry and Beecher, 1 892) F peninsula amnicola 

Amnicola decisa Haldeman, 1845 F incjerta sedis 

Amnicola limosa (Say, 1817) F mud amnicola 

Amnicola' missouriensis Pilsbry, 1898 . F Missouri amnicola 

Amnicola proserpina Hubricht, 1 940 F Proserpine cavesnail 

Amnicola rhombostoma Thompson, 1968 F squaremouth amnicola 

Amnicola" stygia Hubricht, 1971 F stygian cavesnail 

Amnicola ' (Lyogyrus) browni Carpenter, 1872 F slender duskysnail 

Amnicola (Lyogyrus} grana (Say, 1822) F squat duskysnail 

Amnicola (LyogyrusT greggi Pilsbry, 1935 F Rocky Mountain duskysnail 

Amnicola (Lyogyrus) pilsbry Walker, 1906 F lake duskysnail 

Amnicola (LyogyrusT pupoidea (Gould, 1841) F constricted duskysnail 

Amnicola (Lyogyrus) retromargo Thompson, 1 968 F indented duskysnail 

Amnicola (LyogyrusT walkeri Pilsbry, 1898 F Canadian duskysnail 

Antrobia culveri Hubricht, 1972 F Tumbling Creek cavesnail 

Aphaostracon asthenes Thompson, 1968 F Blue Spring hydrobe 

Aphaostracon chalarogyrus Thompson, 1 968 F freemouthed hydrobe 

Aphaostracon hypohyalina Thompson, 1968 F Suwannee hydrobe 

Aphaostracon monas (Pilsbry, 1 899) F Wekiwa hydrobe 

Aphaostracon pachynotus Thompson, 1 968 F thickshelled hydrobe 

Aphaostracon pycnus Thompson, 1 968 F dense hydrobe 

Aphaostracon rhadinus Thompson, 1968 F slough hydrobe 

Aphaostracon theiocrenetus Thompson, 1 968 F Clifton Spring hydrobe 

Aphaostracon xynoelictus Thompson, 1968 F Fenney Spring hydrobe 

Birgella subglobosus (Say, 1825) F globe siltsnail 

Bythinella hemphilli Pilsbry, 1890 F incerta sedis 

Cincinnatia comalensis (Pilsbry and Ferris, 1 906) F Comal siltsnail 

Cincinnatia floridana (Frauenfeld, 1863) F hyacinth siltsnail 

Cincinnatia fraterna Thompson, 1 968 F creek siltsnail 

Cincinnatia helicogyra Thompson, 1968 F crystal siltsnail 

Cincinnatia integra (Say, 1829) F midland siltsnail 

Cincinnatia mica Thompson, 1968 F Ichetucknee siltsnail 

Cincinnatia monroensis (Dall, 1 885) F Enterprise siltsnail 

Cincinnatia" parva Thompson, 1968 F pygmy siltsnail 

Cincinnatia peracuta Pilsbry and Walker, 1889 F paunchy siltsnail 

Cincinnatia petrifons Thompson, 1968 F Rock Springs siltsnail 

Cincinnatia ponderosa Thompson, 1 968 F ponderous siltsnail 

Cincinnatia vanhyningi (Vanatta, 1934) F Seminole siltsnail 

Cincinnatia wekiwae Thompson, 1 968 F Wekiwa siltsnail 

Clappia cahabensis Clench, 1965 F Cahaba pebblesnail 

Clappia umbilicata (Walker, 1904) F umbilicate pebblesnail 

Cochliopina riograndensis 

(Pilsbry and Ferris, 1 906) F spiral pebblesnail 

^ Cochliopa texana Pilsbry, 1935 F incerta sedis 

* Fluminicola avernalis Pilsbry, 1935 F Moapa pebblesnail 

Fluminicola" columbiana Hemphill, 1 899 F Columbia pebblesnail 

Fluminicola erythopoma Pilsbry, 1899 F Ash Meadows pebblesnail 

Fluminicola fusca (Haldeman, 1847) F ashy pebblesnail 

Fluminicola" hindsi (Baird, 1863) F vagrant pebblesnail 

Fluminicola merriami (Pilsbry and Beecher, 1892) F Pahranagat pebblesnail 

Fluminicola minutissima Pilsbry, 1907 F pixie pebblesnail 

FluminicoTa modoci Hannibal, 1912 F Modoc pebblesnail 

Fluminicola navadensis Walker, 1916 F Cortez Hills pebblesnail 

Fluminicola nuttalliana (Lea, 1 8 38) F Columbian pebblesnail 

Fluminicola seminalis (Hinds, 1842) F nugget pebblesnail 

Fluminicola turbiniformis (Tryon, 1 865) F turban pebblesnail 

Fluminicola virens (Lea, 1838) F turquoise pebblesnail 

Fontehcella californiensis Gregg and Taylor, 1 965 F Laguna Mountain springsnail 

Fontelicella deserta (Pilsbry, 1916) F Virgin springsnail 

Fontelicella hendersoni (Pilsbry, 1 933) F Harney Lake springsnail 

Fontelicella" idahoensis (Pilsbry, 1933) F Snake springsnail 

Fontelicella intermedia (Tryon, 1 865) F Crooked Creek springsnail 

Fontelicella micrococcus (Pilsbry, 1893) F Oasis Valley springsnail 

Fontelicella neomexicana (Pilsbry, 1916) F Socorro springsnail 

Fontelicella pilsbryana (Baily and Baily, 1952) F Bear Lake springsnail 

Fontelicella robusta (Walker, 1908) F Jackson Lake springsnail 

Fontelicella stearnsiana (Pilsbry, 1899) F Yaqui springsnail 

Font igens~binney ana (Hanibal, 1912) F incerta sedis 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 49 


Fontigens crypt ica Hubricht, 1963 F. hidden springsnail 

Fontigens h olsingeri Hubricht, 1976 F tapered cavesnail 

Fontigens nickliniana (Lea, 1 8 38) F watercress snail 

Fontigens orolibas Hubricht, 1957 F Blue Ridge springsnail 

Fontigens tartarea Hubricht, 1963 F organ cavesnail 

Fontigens turritella Hubricht, 1976 F .Greenbrier cavesnail 

Fontigens weberi Pilsbry, 1950 F o incerta sedis 

Gillia'altilis (Lea, 1841) F buffalo pebblesnail 

Hauffema micra (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1 906) F flattened cavesnail 

Heleobops docima Thompson, 1968 E oolite hydrobe 

Horatia nugax (Pilsbry and Ferris, 1 906) F domed cavesnail 

Hoyia sheldoni (Pilsbry, 1890) F storm hydrobe 

Hyalopyrgus aequicostatus (Pilsbry, 1 890) F smoothribbed hydrobe 

Hyalopyrgus brevissimus (Pilsbry, 1890) F regal hydrobe 

Lepyrium showalteri (Lea, 1 861) F flat pebblesnail 

Littoridinops monroensis (Frauenfeld, 1863) F,E cockscomb hydrobe 

Littoridinops palustris Thompson, 1968 E bantum hydrobe 

Littoridinops t enuipes Cooper, 1844 F,E henscomb hydrobe 

Marstonia agarhecta Thompson, 1 969 F Ocmulgee marstonia 

Marstonia arga Thompson, 1977 F. ghost marstonia 

Marstonia castor Thompson, 1977 F beaverpond marstonia 

Marstonia halcyon Thompson, 1977 F halcyon marstonia 

Marstonia lustrica (Pilsbry, 1 890) F boreal marstonia 

Marstonia ogmorhaphe Thompson, 1977 F royal marstonia 

Marstonia olivacea (Pilsbry, 1 895) F olive marstonia 

Marstonia pachyta Thompson, 1977 F armored marstonia 

Notogillia" sathon Thompson, 1969 F satyr siltsnail 

Notogillia wetherbyi (Dall, 1885) F alligator siltsnail 

Onobops crassa Thompson, 1968....... E spartina hydrobe 

Onobops jacksoni (Bartsch, 1953) E finelined hydrobe 

Paludestrina bottimeri Walker, 1925 F incerta sedis 

Probythinella lacustris (Baker, 1 928) F delta hydrobe 

Pyrogophorus platyrachis Thompson, 1968 F serrated crownsnail 

Pyrogophorus spinosus (Call and Pilsbry, 1886) F spiney crownsnail 

Pyrgulopsis archimedes Berry, 1947 F Archimedes pyrg 

Pyrgulopsis letsoni (Walker, 1901) F gravel pyrg 

Pyrgulopsis nevadensis (Stearns, 1883) F corded pyrg 

Pyrgulopsis ozarkensis Hinkley, 1915 F Ozark pyrg 

Pyrgulopsis scalar! for mis (Wolf, 1 869) F moss pyrg 

Rhapinema dacryon Thompson, 1969 F teardrop snail 

Somatogyrus alcoviensis Krieger, 1 972 F reverse pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus amnicoloides Walker, 1915 F .Oachita pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus aureus Tryon, 1865 F golden pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus biangulatus Walker, 1 906 F angular pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus constrictus Walker, 1904 F knotty pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus coosaensis Walker, 1904 F Coosa pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus crassilabris Walker, 1915 F thicklipped pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus crassus Walker, 1904 F stocky pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus currierianus (Lea, 1863) F- Tennessee pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus decipiens Walker, 1 909 F hidden pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus depressus (Tryon, 1 862) F sandbar pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus excavatus Walker, 1906 F ovate pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus georgianus Walker, 1904 F Cherokee pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus hendersoni Walker, 1909 F fluted pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus hinkleyi Walker, 1904 F granite pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus humerosus Walker, 1 906 F Atlas pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus integra" 7s~ay, 1829) F Ohio pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus nanus Walker, 1904 F dwarf pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus obtusus Walker, 1904 F moon pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus parvulus Tryon, 1865 F sparrow pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus pennsylvanicus Walker, 1904 F shale pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus pilsbryanus Walker, 1904 F. Tallapoosa pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus pumilus (Conrad, 1834) F compact pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus pygmaeus Walker, 1909 F pygmy pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus quadra tus Walker, 1906 F quadrate pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus rheophilas Thompson, 1984 F. flint pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus sargenti Pilsbry, 1895 F mud pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus strengi Pilsbry and Walker, 1906 F rolling pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus substnatus Walker, 1906 F Choctaw pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus tenax Thompson, 1 969 F Savannah pebblesnail 

50 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Somatogyrus tennesseensis Walker, 1906 F opaque pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus trothis Doherty, 1878 F incerta sedis 

Somatogyrus tryoni Pilsbry and Baker, 1927 F coldwater pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus virginicus Walker, 1904 F Piedmont pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus walkerianus Aldridch, 1905 F Gulf Coast pebblesnail 

Somatogyrus wheeled Walker, 1915 F channelled pebblesnail 

Spilochlamys conica Thompson, 1968 F conical siltsnail 

Spilochlamys gravis Thompson, 1968 F armored siltsnail 

Spilochlamys turgida Thompson, 1969 F pumpkin siltsnail 

Spurwinkia salsa (Pilsbry, 1905) F saltmarsh hydrobe 

Stiobia nana Thompson, 1978 F sculpin snail 

Texadina spinctostoma Abbott and Ladd, 1 953 E narrowmouth hydrobe 

Tryonia cheatumi (Pilsbry, 1935) F Phantum Lake tryonia 

Tryonia clathrata Stimpson, 1865 F grated tryonia 

Tryonia diaboli (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906) F Devils tryonia 

Tryonia imitator (Pilsbry, 1899) F saltmarsh tryonia 

Tryonia protea (Gould, 1855) F desert tryonia 


Antroselatus spiralis Hubricht, 1963 F shaggy cavesnail 


Pomatiopsis binneyi Tryon, 1863 F robust walker 

Pomatiopsis californica Pilsbry, 1899 F Pacific walker 

Pomatiopsis chacei Pilsbry, 1937 F marsh walker 

Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis (Lea, 1840) F brown walker 

Pomatiopsis hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1 896 F incerta sedis 

Pomatiopsis lapidaria (Say, 1817) F slender walker 


Melanoides tuberculata (Muller, 1774H/ F redrimmed melania 

Melanoides turriculus (Lea, 1850) 1/ F fawn melania 

Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822TI/ F quilted melania 





























a acuta (Lea, 1831) F acute elimia 

a alabamensis (Lea, 1861) F mud elimia 

a albanyensis (Lea, 1 864) F blackcrested elemia 

ampla (Anthony, 1854) F ample elimia 

a annettae (Goodrich, 1841) F Lilyshoals elimia 

a arachnoidea (Anthony, 1854) F spider elimia 

a aterina (Lea, 1863) F coal elimia 

a athearni (Clench and Turner, 1956) F knobby elimia 

a bellacrenata (Haldeman, 1841) F princess elimia 

a bellula (LeaT 1861) F walnut elimia 

a bentoniensis (Lea, 1 862) F rusty elimia 

a boykiniana (Lea, 1840) F flaxen elimia 

a brevis (Reeve, 1860) F shortspired elimia 

a caelatura (Reeve, 1860) F rippled elimia 

a cahawbensis (Lea, 1841) F Cahaba elimia 

a capillaris (Lea, 1861) F football elimia 

a cannicostata (Lea, 1 854) F fluted elimia 

a catenaria 7Say, 1822) F gravel elimia 

a carinifera (Lamarck, 1822) F sharpcrested elimia 

a chiltonensis (Goodrich, 1 941) F prune elimia 

a clara (Anthony, 1854) F riffle elimia 

a clavaeformis (Lea, 1841) F club elimia 

clenchi (Goodrich, 1924) F slackwater elimia 

a cochilaris (Lea, 1868) F cockle elimia 

a comalensis (Pilsbry, 1890) F Comanche elimia 

comma (Conrad, 1834) F hispid elimia 

a costifera (Reeve, 1861) F corded elimia 

a crenatella (Lea, 1860) F lacey elimia 

a curreyana (Lea, 1841) F amber elimia 

a curvicostata (Reeve, 1861) F graphite elimia 

a cylindracea (Conrad, 1834) F cylinder elimia 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 51 





































a dickinsoni (Clench and Turner, 1 956) F stately elimia 

a dislocata (Reeve, 1861) F lapped elimia 

a ebenum TLea, 1841) F ebony elimia 

a edgariana (Lea, 1841) F Cumberland elimia 

a fascinans (Lea, 1861) F banded elimia 

a flava (Lea, 1862) F yellow elimia 

a floridensis (Reeve, 1 860) F rasp elimia 

a gerhardti (Lea, 1862) F coldwater elimia 

a hays i ana (Lea, 1843) F silt elimia 

hydei (Conrad, 1834) F gladiator elimia 

a inclinans (Lea, 1862) F slanted elimia 

a interrupta (Haldeman, 1840) F knotty elimia 

a interveniens (Lea, 1 862) F slowwater elimia 

laqueata (Say, 1829) F panel elimia 

a livescens (Menke, 1830) F liver elimia 

a mutabilis (Lea, 1862) F oak elimia 

a nassula (Conrad, 1 834) F roundribbed elimia 

a olivula (Conrad, 1834) F caper elimia 

a paupercula (Lea, 1 862) F sooty elimia 

a perstriata (Lea, 1852) F engraved elimia 

a pilsbryi (Goodrich, 1927) F roughlined elimia 

a plicatostriata (Wetherby, 1876) F carved elimia 

a porrecta (Lea, 1863) F nymph elimia 

potosiensis (Lea, 1841) F pyramid elimia 

proxima (Say, 1825) — F ... sprite elimia 

a pupae for mis (Lea, 1864) F pupa elimia 

a pupoidea (Anthony, 1 8 54) F bot elimia 

pybasi (Lea, 1862) F brook elimia 

a semicarinata (Say, 1829) F fineridged elimia 

a showalteri (Lea, 1860) F compact elimia 

simplex (Say, 1825) F smooth elimia 

striatula (Lea 1842) F file elimia 

strigosa (Lea, 1841) F brook elimia 

symmetrica (Haldeman, 1841) F symmetrical elimia 

a taitiana (Lea, 1841) F dented elimia 

a teres (Lea, 1841) F elegant elimia 

a tr oost i ana (Lea, 1838) F mossy elimia 

a vanhyningiana (Goodrich, 1921) F goblin elimia 

a vanuxemiana (Lea, 1843) F cobble elimia 

a varians (Lea, 1861) F puzzle elimia 

a variata (Lea, 1861) F squat elimia 

Elimia viennaensis (Lea, 1862) F slough elimia 

Elimia virg inica (Say, 1817) F Piedmont elimia 

lo fluvialis (Say, 1825) F spiny riversnail 

Juga acutifilosa (Stearns, 1890) F topaz juga 

Juga bulbosa (Gould, 1847) F bulb juga 

Juga hemphilli (Henderson, 1 935) F barren juga 

Juga interiors (Goodrich, 1944) F smooth juga 

Juga laurae (Goodrich, 1944) F oasis juga 

Juga nigrina (Lea, 1856) F black juga 

Juga occata (Hinds 1 844) F scalloped juga 

Juga plicifera (Lea, 1838) F pleated juga 

Juga silicula (Gould, 1847) F glassy juga 

Leptoxis anTpla (Anthony, 1855) F round rocksnail 

Leptoxis clipeata (Smith, 1922) F agate rocksnail 

Leptoxis compacta (Anthony, 1854) F oblong rocksnail 

Leptoxis formosa (Lea, 1 860) F maiden rocksnail 

Leptoxis ligata (Anthony, 1860) F rotund rocksnail 

Leptoxis lirata (Smith, 1922) F Urate rocksnail 

Leptoxis occulta ta (Smith, 1922) F bigmouth rocksnail 

Leptoxis picta (Conrad, 1 834) F spotted rocksnail 

Leptoxis plicata (Conrad, 1834) F plicate rocksnail 

Leptoxis praerosa (Say, 1821) F onyx rocksnail 

Leptoxis taeniata (Conrad, 1834) F painted rocksnail 

Leptoxis umbilicata (Wetherby, 1876) F umbilicate rocksnail 

Leptoxis vittata (Lea, 1860) F striped rocksnail 

Leptoxis (Athearnia) crassa (Haldeman, 1841) F boulder snail 

Leptoxis TMudalia) a'rkansensis (Hinkley, 1915) F Arkansas mudalia 

Leptoxis TMudalia) carina ta (Bruguiere, 1792) F crested mudalia 

Leptoxis TMudalia) dilatata (Conrad, 1835) F seep mudalia 

52 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Leptoxis (Mudalia) melanoidus (Conrad, 1834) F black mudalia 

Leptoxis (Mudalia) minor (Hinkley, 1912) F knob mudalia 

Leptoxis (Mudalia) trilineata (Say, 1829) F broad mudalia 

Leptoxis (Mudalia) virgata (Lea, 1841) F smooth mudalia 

Lithasia armigera (Say, 1821) F armored rocksnail 

Lithasia curta (Lea, 1868) , F knobby rocksnail 

Lithasia duttoniana (Lea, 1841) F helmet rocksnail 

Lithasia geniculata (Haldeman, 1840) F ornate rocksnail 

Lithasia hubrichti Clench, 1956 F Big Black rocksnail 

Lithasia jayana (Lea, 1841) F rugose rocksnail 

Lithasia lima (Conrad, 1834) F warty rocksnail 

Lithasia obovata (Say, 1829) F Shawnee rocksnail 

Lithasia salebrosa (Conrad, 1 834) F rustic rocksnail 

Lithasia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820) F varicose rocksnail 

Pleurocera acuta Rafinesque, 1831 F sharp hornsnail 

Pleurocera alveare (Conrad, 1834) F rugged hornsnail 

Pleurocera annuliferum (Conrad, 1834) F ringed hornsnail 

Pleurocera brumbyi (Lea, 1852) F spiral hornsnail 

Pleurocera canaliculatum (Say, 1821) F silty hornsnail 

Pleurocera corpulentum (Anthony, 1854) F corpulent hornsnail 

Pleurocera curtum (Haldeman, 1841) F shortspire hornsnail 

Pleurocera foremani (Lea, 1843) F rough hornsnail 

Pleurocera gradatum (Anthony, 1854) F bottle hornsnail 

Pleurocera nobile (Tea, 1845) F noble hornsnail 

Pleurocera parvum (Lea, 1 862) F dainty hornsnail 

Pleurocera postelli (Lea, 1862) F broken hornsnail 

Pleurocera prasmatum (Conrad, 1834) F smooth hornsnail 

Pleurocera pyrenellum (Conrad, 1834) F skirted hornsnail 

Pleurocera showalteri (Lea, 1 862) F upland hornsnail 

Pleurocera trochiformis (Conrad, 1834) F sulcate hornsnail 

Pleurocera unciale (Reeve, 1861) F pagoda hornsnail 

Pleurocera vestitum (Conrad, 1834) F brook hornsnail 

Pleurocera walkeri Goodrich, 1 9 28 F telescope hornsnail 



Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930) F Rocky Mountain capshell 

. Lymnaeidae 

Acella haldemani (Binney, 1 867) F spindle lymnaea 

Bulimnaea magasoma (Say, 1824) F mammoth lymnaea 


















Fossa i 

a alberta Baker, 1919 F incerta sedis 

a bulimoides (Lea, 1841) F prairie fossaria 

a cockerelli Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1906 F incerta sedis 

a cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) F carib fossaria 

a cyclostoma (Walker, 1808) F bugle fossaria 

a dalli (Baker, 1907) F dusky fossaria 

a exigua (Lea, 1841) F incerta sedis 

a galbana (Say, 1825) F boreal fossaria 

a hendersoni Baker, 1909 F incerta sedis 

a humilis (Say, 1822) F marsh fossaria 

a modicella (Say, 1825) F rock fossaria 

a obrussa (Say, 1825) F golden fossaria 

parva (Lea, 1841) F pygmy fossaria 

a peninsulae (Walker, 1908) F incerta sedis 

a perplexa Baker and Henderson, 1929 F incerta sedis 

a perpohta (Dall, 1905) F glossy fossaria 

a rustics {Lea, 1841) F incerta sedis 

a sonomaensis Hemphill, 1906 F Sonoma fossaria 

a tazewelliana (Wolf, 1 869) F Tazwell fossaria 

a techella Haldeman, 1867 F incerta sedis 

a truncatula (Muller, 1774) F attenuate fossaria 

a vancuverensis Baker, 1939 F incerta sedis 

Lymnaea atkaensis Dall, 1884 F frigid lymnaea 

Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus, 1758 F swamp lymnaea 

Pseudosuccinea columella (Say, 1817) F mimic lymnaea 

Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758) U F big-eared radix 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 53 


Stagnicola apicina (Lea, 1 8 38) F abbreviate pondsnail 

Stagnicola arctica (Lea, 1864) F arctic pondsnail 

Stagnicola bonnevillensis (Call, 1884) F fatwhorled pondsnail 

Stagnicola caperata (Say, 1829) F wrinkled marshsnail 

Stagnicola catescopium (Say, 1 867) F woodland pondsnail 

Stagnicola" contracta (Currier, 1881) F deepwater pondsnail 

Stagnicola elodes (Say, 1821) F marsh pondsnail 

Stagnicola elrodi (Baker and Henderson, 1933) F . .flathead pondsnail 

Stagnicola elrodiana Baker, 1935 F longmouth pondsnail 

Stagnicola emarginata (Say, 1821) F St. Lawrence pondsnail 

Stagnicola exilis (Lea, 1834) F flatwhorled pondsnail 

Stagnicola gabbi (Tryon, 1865) F striated pondsnail 

Stagnicola hinkleyi (Baker, 1906) F rustic pondsnail 

Stagnicola" idahoensis (Henderson, 1931) F shortspire pondsnail 

Stagnicola mighelsi (Binney, 1 865) F bigmouth pondsnail 

Stagnicola montanensis (Baker, 1913) F mountain marshsnail 

Stagnicola neopalustris (Baker, 1911) F Piedmont pondsnail 

Stagnicola oronoensis (Baker, 1904) F obese pondsnail 

Stagnicola petoskeyensis (Walker, 1908) F Petoskey pondsnail 

Stagnicola pilsbryi (Hemphill, 1890) F Fish Springs marshsnail 

Stagnicola traski (Tryon, 1 863) F widelip pondsnail 

Stagnicola utahensis (Call, 1884) F thickshell pondsnail 

Stagnicola walkeriana Baker, 1926 F calabash pondsnail 

Stagnicola woodruffi (Baker, 1901) F coldwater pondsnail 

Fisherola nuttalli (Haldeman, 1841) ......... , F shortface lanx 

Lanx alta (Tryon, 1865) F highcap lanx 

Lanx klamathensis Hannibel, 1912 F scale lanx 

Lanx patelloides (Lea, 1856) F kneecap lanx 

Lanx subrotunda (Tryon, 1 865) F rotund lanx 


Aplexa elongata (Say, 1821) F lance aplexa 

Physa jennessi Pall, 1919 F obtuse physa 

Physa skinneri Taylor, 1954J/ F glass physa 

Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) F European physa 

Physella ancillaria (Say, 1825) F pumpkin physa 

Physella bermudezi (Aguayo, 1935) F lowdome physa 

Physella bottimeri {Clench, 1924) F Comanche physa 

Physella boucardi (Crosse and Fischer, 1881) F desert physa 

Physella columbiana (Hemphill, 1890) F rotund physa 

Physella "conoidea (Fischer and Crosse, 1886 F Texas physa 

Physella cooper i (Tryon, 1 865) F olive physa 

Physella costata (Newcomb, 1861) F ornate physa 

Physella cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) F carib physa 

Physella globosa (Haldeman, 1841) F globose physa 

Physella gyrina (Say, 1821) F tadpole physa 

Physella hendersoni (Clench, 1925) F bayou physa 

Physella heterostropha (Say, 1817) F pewter physa 

Physella hordacea (Lea, 1864) F grain physa 

Physella humerosa (Gould, 1 855) F corkscrew physa 

Physella Integra (Haldeman, 1841) F ashy physa 

Physella johnsoni (Clench, 1926) F striated physa 

Physella lordi (Baird, 1863) F twisted physa 

Physella magnalacustris (Walker, 1901) F Great Lakes physa 

Physella microstriatata 

(Chamberlain and Berry, 1 930) F Fish Lake physa 

Physella parkeri (Currier, 1881) F broadshouldered physa 

Physella propinqua (Tryon, 1865) F Rocky Mountain physa 

Physella osculans (Haldeman, 1841) F cayuse physa 

Physella spelunca 

(Turner and Clench, 1974) F cave physa 

Physella squalida (Morelet, 1851) F squalid physa 

Physella traski (Lea, 1864) F sculpted physa 

Physella utahensis (Clench, 1925)..... F Utah physa 

Physella vinosa (Gould, 1847) F banded physa 

Physella virgata (Gould, 1 855) F protean physa 

Physella virgin ea (Gould, 1847) F sunset physa 

Physella zionis (Pilsbry, 1926) F wet-rock physa 

54 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Stenophysa m auger iae (Gray, 1 8 37) F tawny aplexa 

Stenophysa marmorata (Guilding, 1828) F marbled aplexa 


Amphigyra alabamensis Pilsbry, 1906 F shoal sprite 

Biomphalaria galbrata (Say, 1818) If F bloodfluke planorb 

Biompnalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) F ghost rams-horn, 

Drepanotrema aeruginosus (Morelet, 1851H/ F rusty rams-horn 

Drepanotrema clmex (Moricand, 18 39) If F ridged rams-horn 

Drepanotrema kermatoides (d'Orbigny, 1835) If F crested rams-horn 

Gyraulus circumstriatus (TTyon, 1866) F disc gyro 

Gyraulus crista (Linnaeus, 1858) F star gyro 

Gyraulus deflectus (Say, 1824) F flexed gyro 

Gyraulus hornenis Baker, 1934 F tuba gyro 

Gyraulus parvus (Say, 1817) F ash gyro 

Helisoma anceps (Menke, 1830) F two-ridged rams-horn 

Helisoma newberryi (Lea, 1858) F Great Basin rams-horn 

Menetus operculars (Gould, 1847) F button sprite 

Micro menetus alabamensis (Pilsbry, 1 895) F marsh sprite 

Micromenetus brogniartianus (Lea, 1842) F disc sprite 

Micromenetus dilatatus (Gould, 1841) F bugle sprite 

Micromenetus floridensis (Baker, 1945) F penny sprite 

Micromenetus sampsoni (Ancey, 1885) F incerta sedis 

Neoplanorbis carinatus Walker, 1908 F incerta sedis 

Neoplanorbis smithi Walker, 1908 F incerta sedis 

Neoplanorbis tantillus Pilsbry, 1906 F incerta sedis 

Neoplanorbis umbilicatus Walker, 1908 F incerta sedis 

Planorbella ammon (Gould, 1855) F Jupiter rams-horn 

Planorbella armigera (Say, 1821) F thick-lipped rams-horn 

Planorbella binneyf TTryon, 1867) F coarse rams-horn 

Planorbella campanulata (Say, 1821) F bellmouthed rams-horn 

Planorbella campestris (Dawson, 1875) F meadow rams-horn 

Planorbella columbiensis (Baker, 1945) F caribou rams-horn 

Planorbella corpulenta (Say, 1824) F corpulent rams-horn 

Planorbella duryi (Wetherby, 1879) F Seminole rams-horn 

Planorbella magnifica (Pilsbry, 1903) F magnificent rams-horn 

Planorbella multivolvis (Case, 1847) F acorn rams-horn 

Planorbella occidentals (Cooper, 1870) F fine-lined rams-horn 

Planorbella oregonensis (Tryon, 1865) F lamb rams-horn 

Planorbella pilsbryi (Baker, 1926) F file rams-horn 

Planorbella scalaris (Jay, 1839) F mesa rams-horn 

Planorbella tenuis (Dunker, 1850) F Mexican rams-horn 

Planorbella traski (Lea, 1856) F keeled rams-horn 

Planorbella trivolvis (Say, 1817) F marsh rams-horn 

Planorbella truncate (Miles, 1861) F druid rams-horn 

Promenetus exacuous (Say, 1821) F sharp sprite 

Promenetus umbilicatellus (Cockerell, 1887) F umbilicate sprite 

Vorticifex~iffusa (Lea, 1856) F Artemesian rams-horn 

Vorticifex solida (Pall, 1870) F incerta sedis 


Ferrissia fragilis (Tryon, 1 863) F fragile ancylid 

Ferrissia hendersoni Walker, 1925 F blackwater ancylid 

Ferrissia mcneili Walker, 1925 F hood ancylid 

Ferrissia parallelus (Haldeman, 1841) F < oblong ancylid 

Ferrissia rivularis TSay, 1817) F creeping ancylid 

Ferrissia walkeri (Pilsbry and Ferriss, 1907) F cloche ancylid 

Hebetoncylus exc en tricus (Morelet, 1851) F exc en trie ancylid 

Laevapex diaphanus (Haldeman, 1841) F cymbal ancylid 

Laevapex fu scus (Adams, 1841) F dusky ancylid 

Laevapex peninsulae (Pilsbry, 1 903) F peninsula ancylid 

Rhodacme elatior (Anthony, 1 855) F domed ancylid 

Rhodacme filosa (Conrad, 1834) F wicker ancylid 

Rhodacme hinkleyi (Walker, 1908) F knobby ancylid 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 55 




Pondersia calif omica Heath, 1911 P leaf-spiculed solenogaster 

MeiomenTa swedmarki Morse, 1979 P psammon solenogaster 

Neomenia spp. P, Ac new-moon solenogasters 

Proneomenia acuminata Heath, 1918 A elongate solenogaster 


Chaetoderma argentea Heath, 1911 P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma attenuate Heath, 1911 P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma hancocki (Schwabl, 1963) P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma marinelli (Schwabl, 1963) P glisten-worni solenogaster 

Chaetoderma montereyensis Heath, 1911 P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma nanulum Heath, 1911 P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma nitidulum Loven [ = C. canadense Nierstrasz; 

C. vadorum Heath] A glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma nitidulum var. pacifica (Schwabl, 1963) P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma cf. productum Wireu, 1892 P,Ac glisten-worm solenogaster 

Chaetoderma scabrum Heath, 1911 P glisten-worm solenogaster 

Falcidens hartmani (Schwabl, 1961) P tailed solenogaster 

Falcidens spp A tailed solenogasters 

Limifossor talpoideus Heath, 1 904 . .• P mole solenogaster 

Limifossor sp. A mole solenogaster 

Prochaetoderma sp A jawed solenogaster 

Psilodens sp P corkscrew solenogaster 

Scutopus megaradulatus Salvini-Plawen A corkscrew solenogaster 

Scutopus spp A,P corkscrew solenogasters 




Antalis antillarum (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Antillean tuskshell 

Antalis berryi (Smith and Gordon, 1948) P Berry tuskshell 

Antalis cera turn (Pall, 1881) A waxy tuskshell 

Antalis circumcinctum (Watson, 1879) A banded tuskshell 

Antalis en tale occidentale (Stimpson, 1851) A occidental tuskshell 

Antalis pilsbryi (Rehder, 1942) A Pilsbry tuskshell 

Antalis pretiosum (Sowerby, 1 860) P wampum tuskshell 

Antalis taphrium (Pall, 1889) A green tuskshell 

Pentalium agassizi Pilsbry and Sharp, 1 897 P stained tuskshell 

Pentalium amencanum Chenu, 1843 A American tuskshell 

(syn. Dentalium texasianum Philippi, 1848) 

Dentalium gouldii Pall, 1889 A Gould tuskshell 

Pentalium laqueatum Verrill, 1 885 A reticulated tuskshell 

Pentalium neohexagonum Sharp and Pilsbry, 1897 P hexagon tuskshell 

Pentalium vallicolens Raymond, 1904 P trench tuskshell 

Fissidentalium carduus (Pall, 1889) A thistle tuskshell 

Fissi dentalium floridense (Henderson, 1920) A yellow tuskshell 

Fissidentalium megathyris (Pall, 1890) P costate tuskshell 

Fissidentalium mendionale 

(Pilsbry and Sharp, 1897) A meridian tuskshell 

Graptacme calamus (Pall, 1 889) A reed tuskshell 

Graptacme" eboreum (Conrad, 1846) A ivory tuskshell 

Graptacme inversum (Peshayes, 1 8 26) P turned tuskshell 

Graptacme perlongum (Pall, 1881) A. slender tuskshell 

Graptacme semipolitum (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) ... . P half -smooth tuskshell 

Graptacme semistriolatum (Guilding, 1834) A. scratched tuskshell 

Pseudan talis stenoschizum (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1 897) A narrow-slit tuskshell 


Laevidentalium callipeplum (Pall, 1 889) A gorgeous tuskshell 

56 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Rhabdus dalli (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1897) P Dall tuskshell 

Rhabdus rectius (Carpenter, 1865) P straight tuskshell 

Rhabdus watsoni (Sharp and Pilsbry, 1897) P Watson tuskshell 


Episiphon didymum (Watson, 1 879) A ovate tuskshell 

Episiphon sowerbyi (Guilding, 1834) A annulated tuskshell 



Heteroschismoides callithrix (Dall, 1 889) A nine-sided tuskshell 


Compressidens ophiodon (Dall, 1 88 1) A flattened toothshell 

Compressidens pressum (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1897) A compressed tuskshell 

Compressidens stearnsii Pilsbry and Sharp, 1 897 P Stearns toothshell 

PulseUum aberrans (Whiteaves, 1887) P aberrant toothshell 

Pulsellum lobatum (Sowerby, 1 860) A, Ac lobate toothshell 

Pulsellum occidentale (Henderson, 1920) A westerly toothshell 

Pulsellum salishorum Marshall, 1 980 P Salish toothshell 

Pulsellum verrilli (Henderson, 1920) A Verrill toothshell 


Polyschides agassizii (Dall, 1881) A Agassiz toothshell 

Polyschides californicus (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1898) P California toothshell 

Polyschides carolinensis (Bush, 1885) A Carolina toothshell 

Polyschides elongatus (Henderson, 1920) A elongate toothshell 

Polyschides grandis (Verrill, 1884) A grand toothshell 

Polyschides greenlawi (Dall, 1889) A Greenlaw toothshell 

Polyschides miamiensis Henderson, 1 920 A Miami toothshell 

Polyschides pandionis (Verrill and Smith, 1 880) A kingly toothshell 

Polyschides parvus "(Henderson, 1920) A little toothshell 

Polyschides quadridentatus (Dall, 1881) A four-toothed toothshell 

Polyschides rushii (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1898) A Rush toothshell 

Polyschides spectabilis (Verrill, 1 885) A notable toothshell 

Polyschides tetrodon (Pilsbry and Sharp, 1898) A tetrodon toothshell 

Polyschides tolmiei (Dall, 1897) P Tolmie toothshell 

Polyschides watsoni (Dall, 1881) A Watson toothshell 

Siphonodentalium quadrifissatum 

(Pilsbry and Sharp, 1898) P four-slit toothshell 


Cadulus transitorius (Henderson, 1920) A inflated toothshell 

Gadila fusiformis Pilsbry and Sharp, 1898) P fusiform toothshell 

Gadila hepbumi (Dall, 1897) P Hepburn toothshell 

Gadila mayori (Henderson, 1920) A Mayor toothshell 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 57 





Spinila spirula (Linnaeus, 1758) A,P ram's horn squid 


Rossia antillensis Voss, 1955 A Antilles bobtail 

Ro ssia bullisi Voss, 1956 A Gulf bobtail 

Rossia pacifica Berry, 1911 A eastern Pacific Bobtail 

Rossia tor tugaensis Voss, 1956 A Tortuga bobtail 

Semirossia equalis (Voss, 1950) A . . greater shining bobtail 

Semirossia tenera (Verrill, 1880) A lesser shining bobtail 



Loligo ocula Cohen, 1 976 A bigeye squid 

Loligo opalescens Berry, 1911 P California market squid 

Loligo pea lei Lesueur, 1821 ..." A . longfin squid 

Loligo plei Blainville, 1823 A arrow squid 

Loligo roperi Cohen, 1 976 A Roper squid 

Sepioteuthis sepioidea (Blainville, 1823) A Caribbean reef squid 

Lolliguncula brevis (Blainville, 1823) A Atlantic brief squid 

Lolliguncula panamensis Berry, 1911 P. Panama brief squid 

Loliolopsis diomedeae (Hoyle, 1904) P dart squid 


Gonatus berry i Naef, 1923 P Berry armhook squid 

Gonatus fabrici (Lichtenstein, 1818) A,P boreal armhook squid 

Gonatus onyx Young, 1 972 P clawed armhook squid 

Berryteuthis magister (Berry, 1913) P magistrate armhook squid 


Onychoteuthis banksi (Leach, 1817) A,P common clubhook squid 

Onychoteuthis borealiiaponicus Okada, 1927 P boreal clubhook squid 

Moroteuthis robustus (Verrill, 1876) P robust clubhook squid 

Om mastrephidae 

Illex coindeti (Verany, 1837) A southern shortfin squid 

niex illecebrosus (Lesueur, 1821) A northern shortfin squid 

D-lex oxygonius Roper, Lu, and Mangold, 1969 A sharptail shortfin squid 

Ommastrephes bartrami (Lesueur, 1821) A,P flying squid 

Ommastrephes caroli (Furtado, 1887) A webbed squid 

Ommastrephes pteropus (Steenstrup, 1855) A orangeback squid 

Symplectoteuthis luminosa Sasaki 1915 A,P luminous flying squid 

Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis (Lesson, 1 830) P purpleback squid 

Ornithoteuthis antillarum Adam, 1957 A Atlantic bird squid 

Dosidicus gigas (Orbigny, 1835) P jumbo squid 


Thysanoteuthis rhombus Troschel, 1857 A,P diamondback squid 

58 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 




Octopus bimaculatus Verrill, 1833/0. bimaculoides 

Pickford and McConnaughey, 1 949 P California two-spot octopus 

Octopus briareus Robson, 1929 A Caribbean reef octopus 

Octopus burryi Voss, 1953 A brownstripe octopus 

Octopus californicus (Berry, 1911) P orange bigeye octopus 

Octopus defilippi Verany, 185 1 A longarm octopus 

Octopus digueti Perrier and Rochebrune, 1894 P Pacific pygmy octopus 

Octopus dofleini (Wulker, 1910) P Pacific giant octopus 

Octopus fitchi Berry, 1953 P lilliput octopus 

Octopus hummelincki Adam, 1936 A Caribbean two-spot octopus 

Octopus joubini Robson, 1929 A Atlantic pygmy octopus 

Octopus leioderma (Berry, 1911) P smoothskin octopus 

Octopus macropus Risso, 1826 A,P white-spotted octopus 

Octopus rubescens Berry, 1953 P red octopus 

Octopus vulgaris Lamarck, 1798 A,P common octopus 

Scaeurgus unicirrhus (d'Orbigny, 1840) A unicorn octopus 

Bathy polypus arcticus (Prosch, 1849) A spoonarm octopus 

Argonaut idae 

Argonauta argo Linnaeus, 1 758 A,P greater argonaut 

Argonauta hians Solander, 1786 A winged argonaut 

Argonauta nodosa Solander, 1786 A knobby argonaut 

Tre moc topod idae 

Tremoctopus violaceus 

delle Chiaje, 1830 A,P blanket octopus 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 59 





Actinonaias ellipsiformis (Conrad, 1836) F ellipse 

Actinonaias ligamentina (Lamarck, 1819) F mucket 

Actinonaias pectorosa (Conrad, 1834) F pheasantshell 

Actinonaias pleasi (Marsh, 1891) F. . . bleeding-tooth 

Alasmidonta arcula (Lea, 1838) F Altamaha arc mussel 

Alasmidonta atropurpurea (Rafinesque, 1831) F Cumberland elktoe 

Alasmidonta heterodon (Lea, 1830) F dwarf wedge mussel 

Alasmidonta marginata Say, 1818 F elktoe 

Alasmidonta mccordi Athearn, 1964 F Alabama elktoe 

Alasmidonta raveneliana (Lea, 1834) F Appalachian elktoe 

Alasmidonta robusta Clarke, 1 98 1 F Carolina elktoe 

Alasmidonta" triangulate (Lea, 1858) F triangle floater 

Alasmidonta undulate (Say, 1817) F. . heavy-toothed wedge mussel 

Alasmidonta varicosa (Lamarck, 1819) F brook floater 

Alasmidonta viridis (Rafinesque, 1820) F slippershell 

Alasmidonta" wrightiana (Walker, 1901) F Florida arc mussel 

Amblema neisleri (Lea, 1858) . F southern three-ridge 

Amblema plicate perplicata (Conrad, 1841) F roundlake 

Amblema plicate plicate (Say, 1817) F three-ridge 

Anodonta beringiana Middendorff, 1851 F Yukon floater 

Anodonta californiensis Lea, 1852 F California floater 

Anodont a' cateracta cataracta Say, 1817 F eastern floater 

Anodonta cateracta fragilis Lamarck, 1819 F Newfoundland floater 

Anodonta cateracta marginata Say, 1817 F Gaspe floater 

Anodonta couperiana Lea, 1840 F barrel floater 

Anodonta gibbosa Say, 1824 F. inflated floater 

Anodonta grandis corpulente Cooper, 1834.. F .stout floater 

Anodonta grand is dakote Frierson, 1910 F prarie floater 

Anodonta grandis grandis Say, 1829 F common floater 

Anodonta grandis simpsoniana Lea, 1861 F northern floater 

Anodonta grandis stewartiana Lea, 1834 F Louisiana floater 

Anodonta imbecillis Say, 1829 F paper pondshell 

Anodonta implicate Say, 1829 F alewife floater 

Anodonta' kennerlyf Lea, 1860 F western floater 

Anodonta nutta liana Lea, 1838 F winged floater 

Anodonta oregonensis Lea, 1838 F Oregon floater 

Anodonta' peggyae Johnson, 1965 F Florida floater 

Anodonta suborbiculate Say, 1831 F flat floater 

Anodontoides ferussacianus (Lea, 1834) F cylindrical papershell 

Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834) F rayed creekshell 

A re i dens confragosus (Say, 1829) F rock pocketbook 

Arkansia wheelen Ortmann and Walker, 1912 F..... Ouchita rock pocketbook 

Cumberlandia monodonta (Say, 1829) F spectacle case 

Cyclonaias tuberculate (Rafinesque, 1820) F purple wartyback 

Cyprogenia aberti (Conrad, 1 850) F western fanshell 

Cyprogenia" stegaria (Rafinesque, 1820) F fanshell 

Cyrtonaias tampicoensis (Lea, 1838) F Tampico pearly mussel 

Dromus dromas (Lea, 1834) F dromedary mussel 

Ellipsaria lineolata (Rafinesque, 1820) F butterfly 

Elliptic ahenea (Lea, 1843) F southern lance 

Elliptio angusteta (Lea, 1831) F Georgia lance 

Elliptio area (Conrad, 1834) F. Alabama spike 

Elliptio arcteta (Conrad, 1834) F delicate spike 

Elliptio Buckleyi (Lea, 1843) F Florida shiny spike 

Elliptio complanata (Lightfoot, 1786) F eastern elliptio 

Elliptio congaraea (Lea, 1831) F. Carolina slabshell 

Elliptio crassidens crassidens (Lamarck, 1819) F elephant ear 

Elliptio crassidens incrassa to" (Lea, 1840) F southern elephant ear 

Elliptio dariensis TLea, 1842). F Georgia elephant ear 

Elliptio dilate te (Rafinesque, 1820) F spike 

Elliptio (fowniei (Lea, 1859) F Satilla elephant ear 

Elliptio fisheriana (Lea, 1838) F northern lance 

Elliptio Tolliculata (Lea, 1838) F pod lance 

60 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Elliptio f raternum (Lea, 1852) F brother spike 

Elliptio hopetonesis (Lea, 1838) F Altamaha slabshell 

Elliptio icterina (Conrad, 1 834) F variable spike 

Elliptio jayensis (Lea, 1838) F flat spike 

Elliptio lanceolata (Lea, 1828) F yellow lance 

Elliptio marsupiobesa Fuller, 1972 F Cape Fear spike 

Elliptio mcmichaeli Clench and Turner, 1 956 F fluted elephant ear 

Elliptio nigella (Lea, 1852) F winged spike 

Elliptio producta (Conrad, 1836) F Atlantic spike 

Elliptio raven eh (Conrad, 1834) F Carolina spike 

Elliptio roanokensis (Lea, 1836) F giant slabshell 

Elliptio shepardiana (Lea, 1834) F Altamaha lance 

Elliptio spinosa (Lea, 1836) F Altamaha spinymussel 

Elliptio steinstansana Johnson and Clarke, 1 983 F Tar River spinymussel 

Elliptio waccamawensis (Lea, 1863) F Waccamaw spike 

Elliptio waltoni (Wright, 1888) F Florida lance 

Elliptoideus sloatianus (Lea, 1 840) F Georgia bankclimber 

Epioblasma arcaeformis (Lea, 1831) F sugarspoon 

Epioblasma biemarginata (Lea, 1857) F angled riffleshell 

Epioblasma brevidens (Lea, 1834) F Cumberland combshell 

Epioblasma capsaeformis (Lea, 1834) F oyster mussel 

Epioblasma flexuosa (Rafinesque, 1820) F leafshell 

Epioblasma florentina (Lea, 1857) F. .yellow-blossom pearlymussel 

Epioblasma florentina" curtisi (Utterback, 1916) F Curtis pearlymussel 

Epioblasma florentina walkeri 

(Wilson and Clark, 1914).. F tan riffleshell 

Epioblasma haysiana (Lea, 1833) F acornshell 

Epioblasma" lenior (Lea, 1843) F narrow catspaw 

Epioblasma lewisi (Walker, 1910) F forkshell 

Epioblasma metastriata (Conrad, 1840) F Alabama combshell 

Epioblasma" obliquata (Rafinesque, 1820) F catspaw 

Epioblasma othcaloogensis (Lea, 1857) F Alabama acornshell 

Epioblasma penita (Conrad, 1834) F southern combshell 

Epioblasma" personata (Say, 1829) F round combshell 

Epioblasma propinqua (Lea, 1857) F Tennessee riffleshell 

Epioblasma sampsoni (Lea, 1861) F Wabash riffleshell 

Epioblasma steward soni (Lea, 1 852) F Cumberland leafshell 

Epioblasma torulosa gubernaculum (Reeve, 1865) F. . green-blossom pearlymussel 

Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Lea, 1839) F northern riffleshell 

Epioblasma torulosa torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820) F tubercled blossom 

Epioblasma triquetra (Rafinesque, 1820) F snuffbox 

Epioblasma turgidula (Lea, 1858) F. . turgid-blossom pearlymussel 

Fusconaia~askewi (Marsh, 1 896) F Texas pigtoe 

Fusconaia barnesiana (Lea, 1838) F Tennessee pigtoe 

Fusconaia cerina (Conrad, 1 8 38) F southern pigtoe 

Fusconaia* cor (Conrad, 1834) F shiny pigtoe 

Fusconaia cuneolus (Lea, 1840) F fine-rayed pigtoe 

Fusconaia ebena (Lea, 1831) F ebonysheli 

Fusconaia flava (Rafinesque, 1 820) F Wabash pigtoe 

Fusconaia lananensis (Frierson, 1900) F triangle pigtoe 

Fusconaia masoni (Conrad, 1834) F Atlantic pigtoe 

Fusconaia" ozarkensis (Call, 1887) F Ozark pigtoe 

Fusconaia rubidula (Frierson, 1 905) F round pigtoe 

Fusconaia subrotunda lesueuriana (Lea, 1840) F Cumberland long-solid 

Fusconaia" subrotunda" subrotunda" (Lea, 1831) F long-solid 

Fusconaia succissa (Lea, 1852) F purple pigtoe 

Glebula rotunda ta (Lamarck, 1819) F,E round pearlshell 

Gonidea~angulata (Lea, 1 838) F Rocky Mountain ridged mussel 

Hem istena lata (Rafinesque, 1820) F cracking pearlymussel 

Lampsilis altilis (Conrad, 1834) F fine-lined pocketbook 

Lampsilis australis Simpson, 1900 F southern sandshell 

Lampsilis binominata Simpson, 1900 F lined pocketbook 

Lampsilis bracteata (Gould, 1855) F Texas fatmucket 

Lampsilis cariosa (S"ay, 1817) F yellow lampmussel 

Lampsilis dolabraeformis (Lea, 1838) F Georgia pocketbook 

Lampsilis fasciola Rafinesque, 1820 F wavy-rayed lampmussel 

Lampsilis fullerkati Johnson, 1984 F Waccamaw fatmucket 

Lampsilis haddletoni Athearn, 1964 F Haddleton lampmussel 

Lampsilis hi gginsi (Lea, 1 857) F Higgins eye 

Lampsilis orbiculata (Hildreth, 1828) F pink mucket 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 61 


Lampsilis ornata (Conrad, 1835) F southern pocketbook 

Lampsilis ovata (Say, 1817) F pocketbook 

Lampsilis per ova lis (Conrad, 1834) F . . . . orange-nacred pocketbook 

Lampsilis powelli (Lea, 1852) F Arkansas fatmucket 

Lampsilis radiata conspicua (Lea, 1872) F Carolina fatmucket 

Lampsilis radiata hydiana (Lea, 1838) F Louisiana fatmucket 

Lampsilis radiata radiata (Gmelin, 1791) F eastern lampmussel 

Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea (Barnes, 1823) F fatmucket 

Lampsilis rafinesqueana Frierson, 1927 F Neosho muck et 

Lampsilis reeviana brevicula (Call, 1887) F broken rays 

Lampsilis reeviana brittsi Simpson, 1900 F northern ozark 

Lampsilis reeviana reeviana (Lea, 1852) F Arkansas ozark 

Lampsilis satura (Lea, 1852) F Louisiana pocketbook 

Lampsilis" splendida (Lea, 1838) F rayed pink fatmucket 

Lampsilis straminea claibornensis (Lea, 1838) F southern fatmucket 

Lampsilis straminea straminea (Conrad, 1834) F rough fatmucket 

Lampsilis streckeri Frierson, 1 9 27 F speckled pocketbook 

Lampsilis subangulata (Lea, 1840) F pointed pocketbook 

Lampsilis Teres (Rafinesque, 1820) F. . yellow sandshell 

Lampsilis ventricosa (Barnes, 1823) F plain pocketbook 

Lampsilis virescens (Lea, 1858). . . . . . . F.. Alabama lamp pearly mussel 

Lasmigona complanata (Barnes, 1823) F white heelsplitter 

Lasmigona compressa (Lea, 1829). F creek heelsplitter 

Lasmigona costata lRafinesque, 1820) F fluted shell 

Lasmigona decora ta (Lea, 1 852) F Carolina heelsplitter 

Lasmigona holstonia (Lea, 1838) F Tennessee heelsplitter 

Lasmigona subviridis (Conrad, 1835) F green floater 

Lemiox rimosus (Rafinesque, 1820) F birdwing pearlymussel 

Leptodea fragilis (Rafinesque, 1820) F fragile papershell 

Leptodea leptodon (Rafinesque, 1820) F scaleshell 

Leptodea ochracea (Say, 1817) F tidewater mucket 

Lexmgtonia dolabelloides (Lea, 1840) F slabsided pearlymussel 

Lexingtonia subplana (Conrad, 1837) F Virginia pigtoe 

Ligumia nasuta (Say, 1817) F eastern pondmussel 

Ligumia necta (Lamarck, 1819) F black sandshell 

Ligumia subrostrata (Say, 1831) F common pondmussel 

Margaritifera hembeli (Conrad, 1 838) F Mississippi pearlshell 

Margaritifera falca"ta~ (GouId, 1850) F western pearlshell 

Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1 758) F eastern pearlshell 

Margaritifera marrianae Johnson, 1983 F Alabama pearlshell 

Medionidus acutissimus (Lea, 1831) F Alabama moccasin 

Medionidus conradicus (Lea, 1834) F Cumberland moccasin 

Medionidus mcglameriae van der Schalie, 1939 F Tombigbee moccasin 

Medionidus parvulus (Lea, 1860) F Coosa moccasin 

Medionidus penicillatus (Lea, 1857) F gulf moccasin 

Medionidus walkeri (Wright, 1897) F Florida moccasin 

Megalonalas boykiniana (Lea, 1 840) F southern washboard 

Megalonaias gigantea (Barnes, 1823) F washboard 

Obliquaria reflexa Rafinesque, 1 820 F three-horned wartyback 

Obovaria "jacksoniana (Frierson, 1912) F southern hickorynut 

Obovaria olivaria (R"afinesque, 1 820) F hickorynut 

Obovaria retusa (Lamarck, 1819) F ring pink 

Obovaria rotulata (Wright, 1 899) F round ebonyshell 

Obovaria subrotunda (Rafinesque, 1820) F round hickorynut 

Obovaria unicolor (Lea, 1845) F Alabama hickorynut 

Pegias fabula (Lea, 1836) F. . . .little-winged pearlymussel 

Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1833) F bank climber 

Plethobasus cicatricosus (Say, 1829) F white wartyback 

Plethobasus coopenanus (Lea, 1834) F. . . . orange-footed pimpleback 

Plethobasus cyphyus (Rafinesque, 1820) F bullhead 

Pleurobema altum (Conrad, 1854) F highnut 

Pleurobema" avellanum Simpson, 1900 F t hazel pigtoe 

Pleurobema beadleanum (Lea, 1861) F Mississippi pigtoe 

Pleurobema" bournianum (Lea, 1840) F. Scioto pigtoe 

Pleurobema chattanogaense (Lea, 1858) F painted clubshell 

Pleurobema clava (Lamarck, 1819) F clubshell 

Pleurobema coccineum (Conrad, 1834) F round pigtoe 

Pleurobema" collina (Conrad, 1837) F James River spinymussel 

Pleurobema cordatum (Rafinesque, 1820) F Ohio River pigtoe 

Pleurobema curtum (Lea, 1859) F lack clubshell 

62 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Pleurobema decisum (Lea, 1831) F southern clubshell 

Pleurobema flavidulum (Lea, 1831) F yellow pigtoe 

Pleurobema furvum (Conrad, 1834) F dark pigtoe 

Pleurobema georgianum (Lea, 1841) F southern pigtoe 

Pleurobema gibberum (Lea, 1838) F Cumberland pigtoe 

Pleurobema hanleyanum (Lea, 1852) F Georgia pigtoe 

Pleurobema* johannis (Lea, 1859) F Alabama pigtoe 

Pleurobema marshalli Frierson, 1927 F southern round pigtoe 

Pleurobema meredithi (Lea, 1 858) F Warrior pigtoe 

Pleurobema" murrayense (Lea, 1868) F Coosa pigtoe 

Pleurobema nucleopse (Conrad, 1849) F long nut 

Pleurobema oviforme (Conrad, 1834) F Tennessee clubshell 

Pleurobema perovatum (Conrad, 1834) F ovate clubshell 

Pleurobema plenum (Lea, 1840) F rough pigtoe 

Pleurobema" pyramidatum (Lea, 1840) F pyramid pigtoe 

Pleurobema pyriforme (Lea, 1857) F oval pigtoe 

Pleurobema riddelli (Lea, 1861) F Louisiana pigtoe 

Pleurobema" rubellum (Conrad, 1834) F Cahawba pigtoe 

Pleurobema strodeanum (Wright, 1898) F fuzzy pigtoe 

Pleurobema taitianum (Lea, 1834) F southern pink pigtoe 

Pleurobema troschelianum (Lea, 1852) F Alabama clubshell 

Pleurobema" verum (Lea, 1860) F true pigtoe 

Popenaias popei (Lea, 1 857) F western hornshell 

Potamilus alatus (Say, 1817) F pink heelsplitter 

Potamilus amphichaenus (Frierson, 1898) F Texas heelsplitter 

Potamilus capax (Green, 1832) F fat pocketbook 

Potamilus inflatus (Lea, 1831) F Alabama heelsplitter 

Potamilus laevissima (Lea, 1830) F pink papershell 

Potamilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819) F bloofer 

Ptychobranchus fascTolaris (Rafinesque, 1820) F kidneyshell 

Ptychobranchus greeni (Conrad, 1 834) F triangulate kidneyshell 

Ptychobranchus jonesi (van der Schalie, 1 934) F elongate kidneyshell 

Ptychobranchus occidentalis (Conrad, 1836) F Ouachita kindeyshell 

Ptychobranchus subtentum (Say, 1825) F fluted kidneyshell 

Quadrula apiculata apiculata (Say, 1829) F southern mapleleaf 

Quadrula apiculata aspera (Lea, 1831) F rough mapleleaf 

Quadrula "apiculata speciosa (Lea, 1862) F Texas mapleleaf 

Quadrula aspera ta (Lea, 1861) F Alabama orb 

Quadrula aurea (Lea, 1859) F golden orb 

Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica (Say, 1817) F rabbitsfoot 

Quadrula clyindrica strigillata (Wright, 1898) F rough rabbitsfoot 

Quadrula fragosa (Conrad, 1835) F winged mapleleaf 

Quadrula houstonensis (Lea, 1 859) F smooth pimpleback 

Quadrula intermedia (Conrad, 1836) F Cumberland monkeyface 

Quadrula metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820) F monkeyface 

Quadrula nodulata (Rafinesque, 1820) F wartyback 

Quadrula petrina (Gould, 1855) F Texas pimpleback 

Quadrula pustulosa mortoni (Conrad, 1835) F Oachita pimpleback 

Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa (Lea, 1831) F pimpleback 

Quadrula quadrula (Rafinesque, 1820) F mapleleaf 

Quadrula" refulgens (Lea, 1 868) F purple pimpleback 

Quadrula" rumpniana (Lea, 1852) F smooth-ridged mapleleaf 

Quadrula sparsa (Lea, 1841) F Appalachian monkeyface 

Quadrula stapes (Lea, 1831) F stirrupshell 

Quadrula tuberosa (Lea, 1 840) F rough rockshell 

Quincuncina burkei Walker, 1922 F tapered pigtoe 

Quincuncina infucata (Conrad, 1834) F sculptured pigtoe 

SimpsonaiaTambigua (Say, 1825) F salamander mussel 

Strophitus connasaugaensis (Lea, 1857) F Alabama creekmussel 

Strophitus subvexus (Conrad, 1834) F southern creekmussel 

Strophitus undulatus (Say, 1817) F squawfoot 

Strophitus undulatus tennesseen is Frierson, 1927 F Tennessee creekmussel 

Toxolasma corvunculus (Lea, 1868) F southern purple lilliput 

Toxolasma" cylindrellus (Lea, 1868) F pale lilliput 

Toxolasma lividus (Rafinesque, 1831) F purple lilliput 

Toxolasma mearnsi (Simpson, 1900) F western lilliput 

Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823) F lilliput 

Toxolasma paulus (Lea, 1840) F iridescent lilliput 

Toxolasma pullus (Conrad, 1838) F Savannah lilliput 

Toxolasma" texasensis (Lea, 1857) F Texas lilliput 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 63 


Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820) F buckhorn 

Truncilla cognata (Lea, 1860) F Mexican fawnsfoot 

Truncilla donaciformis (Lea, 1828) F fawnsfoot 

Truncilla macrodon (Lea, 1859) F Texas fawnsfoot 

Truncilla truncate Rafinesque, 1820 F deertoe 

Uniomerus caroliniana (Bosc, 1801) F Florida pondhorn 

Uniomerus declivis (Say, 1831) F tapered pondhorn 

Uniomerus excultus (Conrad, 1838) F polished pondhorn 

Uniomerus obesus (Lea, 1831) F southern pondhorn 

Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831) F pondhorn 

Villosa amygdala (Lea, 1843) F Florida rainbow 

Villosa arkansasensis (Lea, 1862) F Ouachita creekshell 

Villosa choctawensls Athearn, 1964 F Choctaw creekshell 

Villosa constricta (Conrad, 1838) F notched rainbow 

Villosa fabalis (Lea, 1831) F bean villosa 

Villosa fnsT Lea, 1830) F rainbow 

Villosa lienosa (Conrad, 1834) F little spectacle case 

Villosa nebulosa (Conrad, 1834) F Alabama rainbow 

Villosa ogeecheensis (Conrad, 1849) F Georgia creekshell 

Villosa ortmanni (Walker, 1925) F Kentucky creekshell 

Villosa perpurpurea (Lea, 1861) F purple bean 

Villosa subangulata (Lea, 1 840) F shiny rayed creekshell 

Villosa taeniata punctata (Lea, 1865) F creek paintedshell 

Villosa taenia ta taenia ta (Conrad, 1834) F painted creekshell 

Villosa Trabi lis (Conrad, 1834) F Cumberland bean mussel 

Villosa vanuxemensis (Lea, 183S) F mountain creekshell 

Villosa vaughaniana" "~Lea, 1 8 38) F Carolina creekshell 

ViUosa vlbex (Conrad, 1834) F southern rainbow 

Villosa villosa (Wright, 1898) F downy rainbow 



Corbicula fluminea (Muller, 1774)J/ F Asiatic* clam 


Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1 865) F mottled fingernailclam 

Musculium lacustre (Muller, 1774) F lake fingernailclam 

Musculium partumeium (Say, 1822) F swamp fingernailclam 

Musculium* securis (Prime, 1852) F pond fingernailclam 

Musculium transversum (Say, 1 8 29) F long fingernailclam 

Pisidium adamsi Stimpson, 1851 F Adam peaclam 

Pisidium amnicum (Muller, 1 77 4) 1/ F . . . . greater European peaclam 

Pisidium casertanum (Poli, 1791) F ubiquitous peaclam 

Pisidium compressum Prime, 1852 F ridged-beak peaclam 

Pisidium conventus Clessin, 1877 F Arctic-Alpine peaclam 

Pisidium cruciatum Sterki, 1895 F ornamented peaclam 

Pisidium dubium (Say, 1816) F greater eastern peaclam 

Pisidium equilaterale Prime, 1 852 F round peaclam 

Pisidium fallax Sterki, 1896 F river peaclam 

Pisidium ferrugineum Prime, 1852 F rusty peaclam 

Pisidium henslowanum (Sheppard, 1825) 1/ F Henslow peaclam 

Pisidium idahoense Roper, 1890 F giant northern peaclam 

Pisidium insigne Gabb, 1868 F tiny peaclam 

Pisidium lilljeborgi (Esmark and Hoyer, 1 886) F Lilljeborg peaclam 

Pisidium 'milium Held, 1836 F ouadrangular pillclam 

Pisidium nitidum Jenyns, 1832 F shiny peaclam 

Pisidium punctatum Sterki, 1895 F perforated peaclam 

Pisidium pure life rum (Guppy, 1 867) F striate peaclam 

Pisidium rotundatum Prime, 1852 F fat peaclam 

Pisidium subtruncatum Malm, 1855 F short-ended peaclam 

Pisidium supinum Schmidt, 1850 1/ F humpbacked peaclam 

1/ Introduced species. 

* "Asiatic" has been called to the committee's attention as often considered to be derog- 
atory and should be changed to "Asian clam." Please comment. 

64 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Pisidium ultramontanum Prime, 1865 F montane peaclam 

Pisidium variabile Prime, 1852 F triangular peaclam 

Pisidium ventricosum Prime, 1851 F globular peaclam 

Pisidium walked Sterki, 1895 F Walker peaclam 

Sphaerium corneum (Linnaeus, 1 758H/ F European fingernailclam 

Sphaerium fabale (Prime, 1852) F river fingernailclam 

Sphaerium nitidum Westerlund, 1 876 F. Arctic-Alpine fingernailclam 

Spnaerium occidentale ("Prime" Lewis, 1856) F. . . . Herrington fingernailclam 

Sphaerium patella (Gould, 1850) FRocky Mountain fingernailclam 

Sphaerium rhomboideum (Say, 1822) F rhomboid fingernailclam 

Sphaerium simile (Say, 1816) F grooved fingernailclam 

Sphaerium striatinum (Lamarck, 1818) F striated fingernailclam 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 65 





Acila castrensis (Hinds, 1843) P divaricate nutclam 

Nucula aegeensis Jeffreys, 1879 A Aegean nutclam 

Nucula atacellana Schenck, 1939 A cancellate nutclam 

Nucula bellotii A. Adams, 1856 Ac,P Belloti nutclam 

Nucula calcicola Moore, 1977 A dwarf nutclam 

Nucula crenulata A. Adams, 1856 A crenulate nutclam 

Nucula delphinodonta 

Mighels and C.B. Adams, 1842 A delphinula nutclam 

Nucula exigua Sowerby, 1833 P short nutclam 

Nucula groenlandica Posselt, 1898 A Greenland nutclam 

Nucula linki Pall, 1916 P Link nutclam 

Nucula proxima Say, 1822 A Atlantic nutclam 

Nucula quirica Pall, 1916 P spear nutclam 

Nucula tenuis (Montagu, 1808) A,P,Ac smooth nutclam 


Saturnia acinula Dall, 1 889 A berry saturnia 

Saturnia quadrangularis (Pall, 1881) A quadrangular saturnia 

Tindaria "acinula (Pall, 1890) A berry tindaria 


Adrana notabilis Rehder, 1 939 A notable adrana 

Adrana scaphoides Rehder, 1939 A skiff adrana 

Adrana tellinoides (Sowerby, 1823) A tellinoid adrana 

Nuculana acuta (Conrad, 1832) A pointed nutclam 

Nuculana amiata (Pall, 1916) P rostrate nutclam 

Nuculana buccata (Moller, 1842) . A,P,Ac cavity nutclam 

Nuculana callimene (Pall, 1908) , . P beautiful moon nutclam 

Nuculana carpenteri (Pall, 1881) A Carpenter nutclam 

Nuculana caudata (Ponovan, 1801) .A tailed nutclam 

Nuculana cellulita (Pall, 1896) P fine-lined nutclam 

Nuculana cestrota (Pall, 1889) A hammer nutclam 

Nuculana concentrica (Say, 1824) A. concentric nutclam 

Nuculana fossa (Bafrd, 1 863) P trenched nutclam 

Nuculana hamata (Carpenter, 1864) P hooked nutclam 

Nuculana jacksoni (Gould, 1841) A Jackson nutclam 

Nuculana jamaicensis (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Jamaica nutclam 

Nuculana messanensis (Seguenza, 1877) A Messanean nutclam 

Nuculana minuta (Fabricius, 1776) A,P,Ac minute nutclam 

Nuculana oxia (Pall, 1916) P pointed nutclam 

Nuculana parva (G.B. Sowerby, 1833) Ac dwarf nutclam 

Nuculana penderi (Pall and Bartsch, 1910) P Pender nutclam 

Nuculana pernula (Muller, 1779) A,P,Ac Arctic nutclam 

Nuculana radiata (Krause, 1885) Ac,P rayed nutclam 

Nuculana spargana (Pall, 1916) P San Piego nutclam 

Nuculana subaequilatera (Jeffreys, 1879) A unequal nutclam 

Nuculana taphria (Pall, 1896) P furrowed nutclam 

Nuculana tenuisulcata (Couthouy, 1838) A,P,Ac thin nutclam 

Nuculana verrillianiT TPall, 1886) A Verrill nutclam 

Portlandia arctica (Gray, 1824) A,P,Ac Arctic yoldia 

Portlandia dalli Krause, 1885 P Pall yoldia 

Yoldia amygdalea (Valenciennes, 1846) A,P almond yoldia 

Yoldia cooperii Gabb, 1865 P .; Cooper yoldia 

Yoldia hyperborea Torell, 1859 A,P,Ac Arctic yoldia 

Yoldia Umatula (Say, 1831) A.... file yoldia 

Yoldia martyria Pall, 1897 P witness yoldia 

Yoldia myalls (Couthouy, 1838) A,P,Ac oval yoldia 

Yoldia regular is Verrill, 1 884 A regular yoldia 

Yoldia sapotilla (Gould, 1841) Ac,A short yoldia 

Yoldia scissurata Pall, 1 897 P crisscrossed yoldia 

Yoldia seminuda Pall, 1 87 1 P halfsmooth yoldia 

66 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Yoldia thraciaeformis (Storer, 1838) A,P,Ac broad yoldia 

Yoldieliadissimilis (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A different yoldia 

Yoldiella fraterna (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A sibling yoldia 

Yoldiella frigida (Torell, 1859) A,Ac frigid yoldia 

Yoldiella inconspicua (Verrill and Bush, 1 898) A inconspicuous yoldia 

Yoldiella inflate (Verrill and Bush, 1897) A inflated yoldia 

Yoldiella intermedia (M. Sars, 1865) A,P,Ac intermediate yoldia 

Yoldiella iris (Verrill and Bush, 1897) A iris yoldia 

Yoldiella lenticula (Moller, 1842) P,A,Ac lenticulate yoldia 

Yoldiella lucida (Loven, 1846) A lucid yoldia 

Yoldiella sanesia (Pall, 1916) P sanesia yoldia 

Yoldiella subangulata (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A subangular yoldia 



Sole my a borealis Totten, 1834 A boreal awningclam 

Solemya grandis Verrill and Bush, 1898 A grand awningclam 

Solemya occidentalis Deshayes, 1857 A West Indian awningclam 

Solemya "reidi Bernard, 1980 P gutless awningclam 

Solemya valvulus Carpenter, 1864 P Pacific awningclam 

Solemya velum Say, 1822 A Atlantic awningclam 



Anadara baughmani Hertlein, 1951 A Baughman ark 

Anadara brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) A incongrous ark 

Anadara chemnitzii (Philippi, 1851) A Chemnitz ark 

Anadara "floridana (Conrad, 1869) A cut-rib ark 

Anadara multicostata (Sowerby, 1833) P many-ribbed ark 

Anadara notabilis (Roding, 1798) A eared ark 

Anadara "ovalis (Bruguiere, 1789) A blood ark 

Anadara transversa (Say, 1822) A transverse ark 

Area imbricata Bruguiere, 1789 A mossy ark 

Area zebra (Swainson, 1833) A zebra ark 

A re ops is adamsi (Pall, 1886) A Adams ark 

Barbatia bailyi (Bartsch, 1931) P Baily miniature ark 

Barbatia cancellaria (Lamarck, 1819) A red-brown ark 

Barbatia Candida (Helbling, 1779) A white-beard ark 

Barbatia doming ens is (Lamarck, 1819) A white miniature ark 

Barbatia tenera (C.BT Adams, 1845)... A Poc Bales ark 

Bathyarca anomala (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A anomalous bathyark 

Bathyarca frielei (Friele, 1879) A,Ac Friele bathyark 

Bathyarca glacialis (Gray, 1824) A,Ac glacial bathyark 

Bathyarca glomerula (Pall, 1881) A little ball bathyark 

Bathyarca pectunculoides (Scacchi, 1833) A pectunculoid bathyark 

Noetia ponderosa (Say, 1822) A ponderous ark 


Limopsis akutanica Pall, 1916 P Akutan limopsis 

Limopsis antillensis Pall, 1881 A Antillean limopsis 

Limopsis aurita Brocchi, 1814 A eared limopsis 

Limopsis crista ta Jeffreys, 1876 A cristate limopsis 

Limopsis di eg ens is Pall, 1908 P San Piego limopsis 

Limopsis minuta Philippi, 1836 A minute limopsis 

Limopsis sulcata Verrill and Bush, 1898 A sulcate limopsis 


Glycymeris americana (PeFrance, 1829) A giant bittersweet 

Glycymeris corteziana Pall, 1916 P Cortez bittersweet 

Glycymer is decussata (Linnaeus, 1 758) A decussate bittersweet 

Glycymeris pectinate (Gmelin, 1791) A comb bittersweet 

Glycymeris septentnonalis (Middendorff, 1849) A northern bittersweet 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 67 


Glycymeris spectralis Nicol, 1952 A spectral bittersweet 

Glycymeris subobsoleta (Carpenter, 1864) P California bittersweet 

Glycymeris subtilis (Nicol, 1956) A Bermuda bittersweet 

Glycymeris undata (Linnaeus, 1758) A Atlantic bittersweet 


Huxleyia munita (Dall, 1 898) P minute huxleyia 


Cose caribaea Abbott, 1958 A Caribbean cosa 

Philobrya setosa (Carpenter, 1864) P hairy filobrya 



Adula californiensis (Philippi, 1 847) P Calif ornian datemussel 

Adula diegensis (Dall, 1911) P San Diego datemussel 

Adula falcata (Gould, 1851) P curved datemussel 

Amygdalum pallidulum (Dall, 1916) P pallid papermussel 

Amygdalum papyrium (Conrad, 1846). A Atlantic papermussel 

Amygdalum segittetum Rehder, 1934 A arrow papermussel 

Botula fusee (Gmelin, 1791) A,P cinnamon mussel 

Brachidontes adamsianus (Dunker, 1857) P Adams mussel 

Brachidontes domingensis (Lamarck, 1819) A Domingo mussel 

Brachidontes exustus (Linnaeus, 1758) A scorched mussel 

Brachidontes modiolus (Linnaeus, 1767) A yellow mussel 

Crenella decussata (Montagu, 1808) A,P cross-sculptured crenella 

Crenelle divaricate (d'Orbigny, 1842) A,P. . . . spreading-sculptured crenella 

Crenella Taba (O. F. Muller, 1776) A faba crenella 

Crenella fragilis Verrill, 1 885 A fragile crenella 

Crenella glandule (Totten, 1834) A. glandular crenella 

Crenelle leana Dall, 1 8 97 P Lee crenelle 

Crenella pectinula (Gould, 1841). A little comb crenella 

Crenella semi nude (Dall, 1 897) P partly-sculptured crenella 

Crenella skom ma (Schwengel, 1944) A Skomma crenella 

Dacrydium elegantulum Soot-Ryen, 1955 P elegant mussel 

Dacrydium vitreum (Moller, 1842) A,P,Ac glassy mussel 

Geukensia demisse (Dillwyn, 1817) A,P . .. .ribbed mussel 

Geukensie demisse granosissima (Sowerby, 1914). .. . A grenuler ribbed mussel 

Gregariella chenui (Recluz, 1842) A,P Chenu gregerielle 

Gregariella coralliophege (Gmelin, 1791) A common gregariella 

Ischedium recurvu m (Refinesque, 1820) A hooked mussel 

Lioberus cestaneus (Say, 1822) A Say chestnut mussel 

Lithophage antillarum (d'Orbigny, 1 842) A giant datemussel 

Lithophage eristate TDillwyn, 1817) A,P scissor detemussel 

Lithophage bisuculata (d'Orbigny, 1842) A mehogeny detemussel 

Lithophega nigra (d'Orbigny, 1842) A. black datemussel 

Lithophage plumule kelseyi 

Hertlein end Strong, 1946 P Kelsey datemussel 

Lithophage rogersi Berry, 1957 P Rogers detemussel 

Megecreneile columbiana (Dell, 1897) P British Columbia crenella 

Modiolus americenus (Leech, 1815) A American horsemussel 

Modiolus capax (Conred, 1837) P fat horsemussel 

Modiolus cerpenteri Soot-Ryen, 1963 P California horsemussel 

Modiolus eiseni Strong and Hertlein, 1 937 P Eisen horsemussel 

Modiolus flabellatus (Gould, 1 850) P fan horsemussel 

Modiolus kurilensis~ Bernard, 1983 P Kurile horsemussel 

Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1 758) A,P, Ac northern horsemussel 

Modiolus modiolus squemosus Beeuperthuy, 1967. ... A felse tulipmussel 

Modiolus neglectus Soot-Ryen, 1955 P ^ . . . . neglected horsemussel 

Modiolus rectus (Conred, 1837) P streight horsemussel 

Modiolus sacculifer (Berry, 1953) P bag horsemussel 

Musculista senhousia (Benson, 1842) P Senhouse musculus 

Musculus corrugatus (Stimpson, 1851) A,P,Ac corrugated musculus 

Musculus cultellus (beshayes, 1839) A,P,Ac knife musculus 

Musculus discors (Linnaeus, 1767) A,P,Ac discordant musculus 

68 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Musculus lateralis (Say, 1822) A lateral musculus 

Musculus marmoratus (Forbes, 1838) Ac spotted musculus 

Musculus niger (Gray, 1824) A,P,Ac black musculus 

Musculus pygmaeus Glynn, 1964 P pygmy musculus 

Musculus taylori (Pall, 1 897) P Taylor musculus 

Musculus vernicosus (Middendorff, 1849) P varnished musculus 

Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 A,P,Ac blue mussel 

Mytilus californianus Conrad, 1837 P Californian mussel 

Septifer"~bifurcatus" 7Conrad, 1837) P bifurcate mussel 


Atrina oldroydii Pall, 1901 P Oldroyd penshell 

Atrina rigida (Lightfoot, 1786) A stiff penshell 

Atrina seminuda (Lamarck, 1819) A half -naked penshell 

Atrina serrata (Sowerby, 1825) A saw-toothed penshell 

Pinna carnea Gmelin, 1791 A amber penshell 

Pinna rudis Linnaeus, 1758 A rude penshell 



Pine ta da imbricate Roding, 1798 A Atlantic pearloyster 

Pteria colymbus (Roding, 1798) A Atlantic wingoyster 

Pteria longisquamosa (Punker, 1852) A scaly wingoyster 

Pteria vltrea (ReeveT 1857) A glassy wingoyster 


Isognomon alatus (Gmelin, 1791) A flat treeoyster 

Isognomon bicolor (C. B. Adams, 1845) A two-toned treeoyster 

Isognomon janus Carpenter, 1 857 P door treeoyster 

Isognomon radiatus (Anton, 1839) A Lister treeoyster 

Mallei dae 

Malleus candeanus (d'Orbigny, 1842) A American malleus 


Aequipecten acanthodes (Pall, 1925) A thistle scallop 

Aequipecten glyptus (Verrill, 1882) A Tryon scallop 

Aequipecten lineolaris (Lamarck, 1819) A wavy-lined scallop 

Aequipeclen muscosus (Wood, 1828) A rough scallop 

Aequipecten phrygium (Pall, 1886) A spathate scallop 

Amusium papyraceum (Gabb, 1873) A paper scallop 

Arctinula greenlandica (Sowerby, 1842) Ac Greenland scallop 

Argopecten "circularis 

(Sowerby, 1835),"auctt P Pacific calico scallop 

Argopecten gibbus (Linnaeus, 1 758) A Atlantic calico scallop 

Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819) A bay scallop 

Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) A nucleus scallop 

Chlamys aTbida (Arnold, 1 906) P white scallop 

Chlamys behringiana (Middendorff, 1849) P Bering scallop 

Chlamys benedicti (Verrill and Bush, 1897) A Benedict scallop 

Chlamys hastata (Sowerby, 1843) P spear scallop 

Chlamys imbricata (Gmelin, 1791) A knobby scallop 

Chlamys 'islandica (Muller, 1776) A,P,Ac Iceland scallop 

Chlamys jordani Arnold, 1903 P. Jordan scallop 

Chlamys lowei (Hertlein, 1 935) P Lowe scallop 

Chlamys mildredae (F. M. Bayer, 1941) A Mildred scallop 

Chlamys multisquamata (Punker, 1 864) A many-ribbed scallop 

Chlamys ornata (Lamarck, 1819) A ornate scallop 

Chlamys rubida (Hinds, 1845) P reddish scallop 

Chlamys sentis (Reeve, 1853) A sentis scallop 

Cyclopecten barbarensis Grau, 1954 P Santa Barbara scallop 

Cyclopecten catalinensis (Willett, 1931) P Catalina scallop 

Cyclopecten nanus Verrill and Bush, 1 897 A dwarf scallop 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 69 


Cyclopecten thalassinum (Pall, 1886) A concellate dwarf scallop 

Pelectopecten randolphi (Pall, 1897) P Randolph scallop 

Pelectopecten vancouverensis (Whiteaves, 1893). ... P Vancouver scallop 

Pelectopecten vitreus (Gmelin, 1791) A,P vitreous scallop 

Hinnites giganteus (Gray, 1825) P giant rock scallop 

Leptopecten latiauratus (Conrad, 1837) P kelp scallop 

Lyropecten antillarum (Recluz, 1 853) A Antillean scallop 

Lyropecten" kallinubilosus F. M. Bayer, 1 943 A clouded scallop 

Lyropecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) A lion paw 

Palliolum imbrifer (Loven, 1847) A, Ac shingle scallop 

Palliolum leptaleum (Verrill, 1884) A delicate scallop 

Palliolum reticulum (Pall, 1886) A netted scallop 

Palliolum ringnesia (Pall, 1924) Ac Ringnes scallop 

Palliolum striatum (Muller, 1776) A striate scallop 

Palliolum undatum (Verrill and S. Smith, 1885) A wavy scallop 

Patinopecten caurinus (Gould, 1850) P weathervane scallop 

Pec ten chazaliei Pautzenberg, 1900 A tereinus scallop 

Pec ten diegensis Pall, 1898 P San Piego scallop 

Pec ten raveneli Pall, 1 898 A Ravenel scallop 

Pec ten zlczac (Linnaeus, 1758) A zigzag scallop 

Pectinella sigsbeei (Pall, 1886) A Sigsbee scallop 

Placopecten magellanicus (Gmelin, 1791) A sea scallop 


Parvamussium alaskensis (Pall, 1871) P Alaska glass-scallop 

Propeamussium cancellatum (E. A. Smith, 1885) .... A cancellate glass-scallop 

Propea muss [urn holmesii (Pall, 1 886) A Holmes glass-scallop 

Propeamussium pourtalesianum (Pall, 1886) A Pourtales glass-scallop 

Propeamussium thalassinum (Pall, 1 886) A seaweed glass-scallop 


Plica tula gibbosa Lamarck, 1801 A kitten paw 


Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 A Atlantic thorny oyster 

Spondylus ictericus Reeve, 1856 A digitate thorny oyster 


Basi liomya goreaui F. M. Bayer, 1971 A Goreau dimya 

Pimya calif orniana Berry, 1937 P Californian dimya 

Pimya coralliotis Berry, 1944 P coral dimya 

Pimya argentea Pall, 1886 A silver dimya 

Pimyella starcki P. R. Moore, 1 969 A Starck dimya 


Anomia peruviana d'Orbigny, 1846 P Peruvian jingle 

Anomia simplex d'Orbigny, 1842 A common jingle 

Anomia squamula Linnaeus, 1758 A prickly jingle 

Pododesmus cepio (Gray, 1850) P Pacific jingle 

Pododesmus macroschisma (Peshayes, 1839) P Alaska jingle 

Pododesmus pernoides (Gray, 1853) P pedestal jingle 

Pododesmus rudis (Broderip, 1834) A Atlantic jingle 


Lima excavata (Fabricius, 1 779) A excavated lima 

Lima floridana Olsson and Harbison, 1 953 A smooth lima 

Lima lima (Linnaeus, 1758) A spiny lima 

Lima locklini McGinty, 1 955 A Locklin lima 

Lima pellucida C. B. Adams, 1846 A Antillean lima 

Lima scabra (Born, 1778) A rough lima 

Lima subovata Jeffreys, 1876 A subovate dwarf lima 

Limaea bronniana Pall, 1 886 A Bronn dwarf lima 

70 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Limaria hemphilli (Hertlein and Strong, 1946) P Hemphill lima 

Li ma tula attenuate Pall, 1916 P attenuated lima 

Limatula confusa (E. A. Smith, 1885) A confusing lima 

Li ma tula hendersoni Olsson and McGinty, 1958 A Henderson lima 

Limatula hyalina Verrill and Bush, 1898 A hyaline lima 

Limatula hyperborea Jensen, 1 909 A, Ac subboreal lima 

Limatula regular is Verrill and Bush, 1 898 A regular lima 

Limatula saturna Bernard, 1978 P Saturna lima 

Limatula setifera Dall, 1886 A hairy lima 

Limatula subauriculata (Montagu, 1808) A,P small-eared lima 

Limatula vancouverensis Bernard, 1978 P Vancouver lima 


Crassotrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) P Pacific giant oyster 

Crassostrea yirginica (Gmelin, 1791) A eastern oyster 

Dendostrea frons (Linnaeus, 1758) A frond oyster 

Ostrea permollis (Sowerby, 187 1) A sponge oyster 

Ostrea weberi (Olsson, 1951) A Weber oyster 

Ostreola conchaphila (Carpenter, 1 857) P Olympia oyster 

Ostreola equestris TS~ay, 1834) A horse oyster 


Hyotissa thomasi (McLean, 1941) A McGinty oyster 

Neopycnodonte cochlear (Poli, 1795) A deepsea oyster 

Pycnodonte hyotis (Linnaeus, 1 758) A honeycomb oyster 



Anodontia alba Link, 1 807 A buttercup lucina 

Anodontia* philippiana (Reeve, 1850) A chalky buttercup lucina 

Codakia costeta (d'Orbigny, 1842) A costate lucina 

Codakia cubana Dall, 1901 A Cuban lucina 

Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) A tiger lucina 

Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) A dwarf tiger lucina 

Codakia pectinella C. B. Adams, 1 852 A little comb lucina 

Divaricella dentate (Wood, 1815) A dentate lucina 

Divaricella quadrisulcata (d'Orbigny, 1842) A cross-hatched lucina 

Epilucina californica (Conrad, 1837) P Californian lucina 

Here richthofeni (Gabb, 1866) P pit lucina 

Linga amiantus (Dall, 1901) A lovely miniature lucina 

Linga leucocyma (Dall, 1 886) A four-ribbed lucina 

Linga pensylvanica (Linnaeus, 1758) A Pennsylvania lucina 

Linga sombrerensis (Dall, 1 886) A sombrero lucina 

Lucina bermudensis Dall, 1901 A Bermuda lucina 

Lucina keenae Chavan, 1971 A dosinia-like lucina 

Lucina muricate (Spengler, 1798) A spinose lucina 

Lucina nassula (Conrad, 1 846) A woven lucina 

Lucina nuttalli (Conrad, 1837) P Nuttall lucina 

Lucina pectinate (Gmelin, 1791) A thick lucina 

Lucinoma aequizonata (Stearns, 1890) P equal-zoned lucina 

Lucinoma annulate (Reeve, 1850) P ringed lucina 

Lucinoma blakeana Bush, 1893 A Blake lucina 

Lucinoma" filosa (Stimpson, 1851) A Northeast lucina 

Myrtea compressa (Dall, 1881) A compressed lucina 

Myrtea lens (Verrill and S. Smith, 1880) A lens lucina 

Myrtea pristiphora Dall and Simpson, 1 901 A lamella ted lucina 

Myrtea sagrinata TDall, 1 886) A arrow lucina 

Parvilucina approximate (Dall, 1901) P approximate lucina 

Parvilucina blanda (Dall and Simpson, 1901) A three-ridged lucina 

Parvilucina multilineate 

(Tuomey and Holmes, 1 857) A many-lined lucina 

Parvilucina tenuisculpta (Carpenter, 1 864) P fine-lined lucina 

PseudomiTtha floridana (Conrad, 1833) A Florida lucina 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 71 



Adontorhina cyclia Berry, 1947 P circle axinopsid 

Axinopsida cordate (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A heart-shaped axinopsid 

Axinopsida orbiculata (G. O. Sars, 1 878) A orbicular axinopsid 

Axinopsida serricatel Carpenter, 1864) P silky axinopsid 

Axinopsida viridis (Pall, 1901) P,Ac green axinopsid 

Axinulus redondoensis (T. Burch, 1 941) P Redondo axinopsid 

Conchoce~Te"bisecta (Conrad, 1849) A,P Pacific cleftclam 

Conchocele disjuncta Gabb, 1866 P disjunct cleftclam 

Leptaxinus minutus Verrill and Bush, 1898 A minute axinopsid 

Thyasira Barbarensis (Dall, 1890) P Santa Barbara cleftclam 

Thyasira b rev is Verrill and Bush, 1898 A short cleftclam 

Thyasira cygnus Dall, 1916 P swan cleftclam 

Thyasira equalis Verrill and Bush, 1898 A equal cleftclam 

Thyasira eumyaria M. Sars, 1870 Ac mya cleftclam 

Thyasira ferruginea Winckworth, 1932 A,Ac reddish cleftclam 

Thyasira flexuosa (Montagu, 1803) A flexuose cleftclam 

Thyasira gouldii (Philippi, 1845) P,Ac Gould cleftclam 

Thyasira granulosa Monterosato, 1874 A granulose cleftclam 

Thyasira rotunda Jeffreys, 1 88 1 . . A rotund cleftclam 

Thyasira succisa Jeffreys, 1876 A succisa cleftclam 

Thyasira simplex Verrill and Bush, 1898 A simple cleftclam 

Thyasira trismuata d'Orbigny, 1842 A Atlantic cleftclam 


Diplodonta aleutica Dall, 1901 P Aleutian diplodon 

Diplodonta candeana (d'Orbigny, 1 842) A Cande diplodon 

Diplodonta" impolita Berry, 1953 P rough diplodon 

Diplodonta notata Dall and Simpson, 1 901 A notable diplodon 

Diplodonta nuclei form is Wagner, 1838 A nut-shaped diplodon 

Diplodonta orbella (Gould, 1851) P orb diplodon 

Diplodonta punctata (Say, 1822) A Atlantic diplodon 

Diplodonta semiaspera Philippi, 1836 A pimpled diplodon 

Diplodonta soror C. B. Adams, 1 852 A sister diplodon 

Diplodonta subglobosa C. B. Adams, 1852 A subglobose diplodon 

Diplodonta venezuelensis Dunker, 1848 A Venezuelan diplodon 

Diplodonta verrilli Dall, 1900 A Verrill diplodon 

Felaniella parilis (Conrad, 1848) P equal diplodon 


Cyrenoida floridana (Dall, 1896) A Florida marshclam 


Arcinella arcinella (Linnaeus, 1767) A spiny jewelbox 

Arcinella cornuta Conrad, 1866 A Florida spiny jewelbox 

Chama arcana Bernard, 1 976 P secret jewelbox 

Chama congregate Conrad, 1833 A corrugated jewelbox 

Chama florida Lamarck, 1819 A pretty jewelbox 

Chama lac tuca Dall, 1886 A milky jewelbox 

Chama macerophylla Gmelin, 1791 A leafy jewelbox 

Chama sarda Reeve, 1847 A cherry jewelbox 

Chama sinuosa Broderip, 1835 A smooth-edged jewelbox 

Pseudochama exogyra (Conrad, 1837) P Pacific jewelbox 

Pseudochama granti Strong, 1934 P Grant jewelbox 

Pseudochama inezae F.M. Bayer, 1943 A Inez jewelbox 

Pseudochama radians (Lamarck, 1819) A Atlantic jewelbox 


Aligena diegoana Hertlein and Grant, 1 972 P San Diego aligena 

Aligena elevate (Stimpson, 1851) A Eastern aligena 

Aligena texasiana Harry, 1 969 A Texas aligena 

Bornia longipes (Stimpson, 1855) A long-footed bornia 

EryciniTballiana Dall, 1916 P Ball erycina 

Erycina coronate Dall, 1916 P. crown erycina 

72 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Erycina emmonsi Pall, 1899 A Emmons erycina 

Erycina linella Pall, 1899 A lined erycina 

Erycina periscopiana Pall, 1899 A periscope erycina 

Kellia laperousii (Peshayes, 1839) P La Perouse kelliid 

Kellia suborbicularis (Montagu, 1803) A,P,Ac North Atlantic kelliid 

Lasaea~adansoni (Gmelin, 1791) A Adanson lepton 

Lasaea siibviridis Pall, 1899 P Pacific lasaea 

Odontogena borealis (Cowan, 1964) P boreal kelliid 

ParabornfiTsquillina Boss, 1965 A Atlantic squillaclam 

Platomysia meroeum (Carpenter, 1864) P broad lepton 

Rhamphidonta retifera (Pall, 1899) P netted kelliid 


Entovalva perrieri (Malard, 1903) A Perrier entovalve 

Isorobitella trigonalis (Carpenter, 1857) P trigonal montacutid 

Lepton lepidum Say, 1826 A scaly lepton 

Montacuta dawsoni Jeffreys, 1864 A,P,Ac Pawson montacutid 

Montacuta limpida Pall, 1899 A limpid montacutid 

Montacuta percompressa Pall, 1899 A compressed montacutid 

Mysella aleutica Pall, 1899 P Aleutian mysella 

Mysella beringensis (Pall, 1916) P Bering Sea mysella 

Mysella casta (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A casta mysella 

Mysella compressa (Pall, 1913) P compressed mysella 

Mysella grebnitzskii (Pall, 1916) P Grebnitzski mysella 

Mysella moelleri (Morch, 1875) A Moller mysella 

Mysella ovata (Jeffreys, 1881) A ovate mysella 

Mysella pedroana Pall, 1899 P San Pedro mysella 

Mysella plana ta (Krause, 1885) P flat mysella 

Mysella planulata (Stimpson, 1851) A flat mysella 

Mysella striatula Verrill and Bush, 1898 A scratched mysella 

Mysella triquetra (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A triangular mysella 

Mysella tumida (Carpenter, 1 864) P Pacific fat mysella 

Neaeromya compressa (Pall, 1899) P compressed montacutid 

Neaeromya floridana (Pall, 1899) A giant montacutid 

Neaeromya rugiferal Carpenter, 1864) P wrinkled montacutid 

Orobitella baker i (Pall, 1916) P Baker montacutid 

Pristes oblongus Carpenter, 1864 P chiton clam 

Pythenella cuneata (Verrill and Bush, 1898) A cuneate lepton 


Aclistothyra atlantica McGinty, 1955 A Atlantic galeomma 

Scintillona bellerophon 

OToighil and Gibson, 1984 P sea cucumber clam 


Chlamydoconcha orcutti Pall, 1884 P Orcutt nakedclam 


Turtonia minuta (Fabricius, 1780) A,P,Ac minute turton 

Turtonia occidentalis Pall, 1871 P western turton 


Basterotia corbuloidea Pall, 1899 A corbula-shaped basterotia 

Basterotia elliptica (Recluz, 1850) A elliptical basterotia 

Basterotia" quad rata (Hinds, 1843) A square basterotia 

Ensitellops pilsbryi (Pall, 1899) A Pilsbry sportella 

Ensitellops protexta (Conrad, 1841) A textured sportella 


Carditamera floridana Conrad, 1838 A broad-ribbed cardita 

Carditamera gracilis (Shuttleworth, 1856) A West Indian cardita 

Crass icardia crassidens 

(Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) P thick cardita 

Cyclocardia armilla (Pall, 1903) A bracelet cardita 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 73 


Cyclocardia bailyi (J. Burch, 1944). P bumpy cardita 

Cyclocardia barbarensis (Stearns, 1891) P Santa Barbara cardita 

Cyclocardia borealis (Conrad, 1831). A. northern cardita 

Cyclocardia crebricostata (Krause, 1885) P. many-ribbed cardita 

Cyclocardia incisa (Pall, 1903) P cut cardita 

Cyclocardia novangliae (Morse, 1869) A. New England cardita 

Cyclocardia ova ta (Rjabinina, 1 952) P ovate cardita 

Cyclocardia rjabininae (Scarlato, 1955). P .Rjabinina cardita 

Cyclocardia umnak a (Willett, 1932) P Umnak cardita 

Cyclocardia vintricosa montereyensis 

(Smith and Gordon, 1948).. P Monterey stout cardita 

Cyclocardia ventricosa redondoensis 

(T. Burch, in J. Burch, 1944) P Redondo stout cardita 

Cyclocardia ventricosa ventricosa 

(Gould, 1850) ......' P stout cardita 

Glans carpenteri (Lamy, 1922) P. Carpenter cardita 

Glans dominguensis (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Domingo cardita 

Milner7a~kelseyi Pall, 1916 P Kelsey pouch clam 

Milneria minima (Pall, 1871). P tiny pouch clam 

Miodontiscus prolongatus (Carpenter, 1864) P. elongate microcardita 

Pleuromeris arm ilia (Pall, 1902) A. armilla cardita 

Pleuromeris perplana (Conrad, 1841) A flattened cardita 

Pleuromeris tridentata (Say, 1826) A three-toothed cardita 


Carditopsis bernardi (Pall, 1903) A Bernard tiny cardita 

Carditopsis smithii (Pall, 1896) A Smith tiny cardita 

Cuna dalli Vanatta, 1904 A Dall cuna 


Astarte castanea (Say, 1822) A smooth astarte 

Astarte compacte Carpenter, 1864 P compact astarte 

Astarte crenata (Gray, 1824) A,Ac,P. crenulate astarte 

Astarte "esquimalti (Baird, 1863) P Eskimo astarte 

Astarte mirabilis (Pall, 1871) P strange astarte 

Astarte nana Dall, 1886 A dwarf astarte 

Astarte polaris Pall, 1903 P polaris astarte 

Astarte quadrans Gould, 1841 A squarish astarte 

Astarte smithii Pall, 1886 A Smith astarte 

Astarte undata Gould, 1841 A,P wavy astarte 

Astarte willetti Pall, 1917 P Willett astarte 

Tridonta alaskensis (Pall, 1903) P. Alaskan astarte 

Tridonta arctica (Gray, 1824) A,P,Ac Arctic astarte 

Tridonta bennettii (Pall, 1903) P,Ac. Bennett astarte 

Tridonta borealis Schumacher, 1817 A,P,Ac boreal astarte 

Tridonta Tilatovae (Habe, 1 964) P Filatova astarte 

Tridonta montagui (Pillwyn, 1817) A,P,Ac Montagu astarte 

Tridonta rollandi (Bernardi, 1859) P. Rolland astarte 

Tridonta vernicosa (Pall, 1903) P,Ac .varnished astarte 


Crassinella lunula ta (Conrad, 1834) A lunate crassinella 

Crassinella martinicensis (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Martinique crassinella 

Crassinelia pacifica (C. B. Adams, 1852) P Pacific crassinella 

Eucrassatella fluctuata (Carpenter, 1864) P wavy crassatella 

Eucrassatella speciosa (A. Adams, 1852) . . .' A splendid crassatella 


Americardia biangulata 

(Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) P western strawberry cockle 

Americardia guppyi Thiele, 1910 A Guppy strawberry cockle 

Americardia meaia" (Linnaeus, 1758) A Atlantic strawberry cockle 

Cerastoderma elegantulum Beck in Moller, 1842 .... A elegant dwarf cockle 

Cera st oder ma pinnulatum ^Conrad, 1831) A northern dwarf cockle 

Clinocardium blandum (Gould, 1850) P smooth cockle 

Clinocardium californiense (Peshayes, 1839) P California cockle 

74 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Clinocardium ciliatum (Fabricius, 1780) A,P,Ac hairy cockle 

Clinocardium fucanum (Dall, 1907) P Fucan cockle 

Clinocardium nuttalfiT ( Conrad, 1837) P Nuttall cockle 

Dinocardium robustum (Lightfoot, 1786) A Atlantic giant cockle 

Laevicardium elatum (Sowerby, 1833) P giant eggcockle 

Laevicardium laevigatum (Linnaeus, 1758) A eggcockle 

Laevicardium mortoni (Conrad, 1 830) A Morton eggcockle 

Laevicardium pictum (Ravenel, 1861) A Ravenel eggcockle 

Laevicardium substfTatum (Conrad, 1837) P Pacific eggcockle 

Laevicardium sybariticum (Dall, 1886) A Dall eggcockle 

Nemocardium centifilosum (Carpenter, 1864) P hundred-lined cockle 

Nemocardium peramabile (Dall, 1881) A eastern micro-cockle 

Nemocardium tinctum (Dall, 1881) A dyed micro-cockle 

Nemocardium transversum 

Rehder and Abbott, 1951 A transverse micro-cockle 

Papyridea semisulcata (Gray, 1825) A frilled papercockle 

Papyridea soleniformis (Bruguiere, 1789) A » spiny papercockle 

Serripes groenlandicus (Bruguiere, 1789) A,P,Ac Greenland cockle 

Serripes laperousii (Deshayes, 1839) P broad cockle 

Trachycardium egmontianum (Shuttleworth, 1856) . . A Egmont pricklycockle 

Trachycardium isocardia (Linnaeus, 1758) A even pricklycockle 

Trachycardium magnum (Linnaeus, 1 758) A magnum cockle 

Trachycardium muricatum (Linnaeus, 1758) A yellow cockle 

Trachycardium quadragenarium (Conrad, 1837) ..... P spiny cockle 

Trigoniocardia antillarum (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Antillean cockle 


Anatina anatina (Spengler, 1802) A smooth duckclam 

Mactra calif or nica Conrad, 1837 P Californian mactra 

Mactra dolabriformis (Conrad, 1 867) P hatchet surfclam 

Mactra Tragilis GmeBn, 1791 A fragile mactra 

Mactra nasuta Gould, 1851 P bent mactra 

Mactrellona alata (Spengler, 1802) A Caribbean winged mactra 

Mactromeris polynyma (Stimpson, 1860) . ..... A,P,Ac Arctic surfclam 

Mulinia cieryana (d'Orbigny, 1846) A Clery surfclam 

Mulinia lateralis (Say, 1822) A dwarf surfclam 

Raeta plicatella (Lamarck, 1818) A channeled duckclam 

Raeta undulata (Gould, 1851) P Pacific duckclam 

Rangia cuneata (Sowerby, 1831) A rangia 

Rangia Tlexuosa (Conrad, 1840) A brown rangia 

Spisula catilliformis Conrad, 1867 P dish surfclam 

Spisula Talcata (Gould, 1850) P hooked surfclam 

Spisula hemphillii (Dall, 1894) P Hemphill surfclam 

Spisula planulata (Conrad, 1837) P flat surfclam 

Spisula sohdissima (Dillwyn, 1817) A Atlantic surfclam 

Tresus capax (Gould, 1850) P fat gaper 

Tresus nuttalli (Conrad, 1837) P Pacific gaper 

Tresis 'pajoroana "(Conrad, 1 857)," auct P lost gaper 


Ervilia concentrica (Holmes, 1860) A concentric ervilia 

Ervilia nitens (Montagu, 1808) A Montagu ervilia 

Ervilia subcancellata E. A. Smith, 1885 A subcancellate ervilia 

Mesodesma arctatum (Conrad, 1830) A Arctic wedgeclam 

Mesodesma deauratum (Turton, 1 822) A Turton wedgeclam 


Ensis directus Conrad, 1843 A Atlantic razor 

Ensis minor Dall, 1900 A minor razor 

Ens is myrae S.S. Berry, 1953 P Californian razor 

Siliqua alta (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) P high razor 

Siliqua costata Say, 1822 A Atlantic razor 

Siliqua Tucida (Conrad, 1837) P transparent razor 

Siliqua pa tula (Dixon, 1789) P northern razor 

Siliqua sloati Hertlein, 1961 P Sloat razor 

Siliqua squama Blainville, 1824 A rough razor 

Solen obliquus Spengler, 1794 A oblique razor 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 75 


Solen rosaceus Carpenter, 1 864 P rosy razor 

Solen sicarius Gould, 1850 P sickle razor 

Solen viridis Say, 1821 A green razor 


Cymatoica orientalis (Dall, 1890) A western macoma 

Leporimetis intastriata (Say, 1827) A Atlantic fat macoma 

Leporimetis obesa (Deshayes, 1855) P California fat macoma 

Macoma acolasta Dall, 1 921 P morsel macoma 

Macoma balthica (Linnaeus, 1 758) A, Ac,P Baltic macoma 

Macoma brevifrons (Say, 1834) A short macoma 

Macoma brota Dall, 1916 P,Ac thick macoma 

Macoma calcarea (Gmelin, 1791) A,P,Ac chalky macoma 

Macoma carlottensis Whiteaves, 1880 P,Ac Charlotte macoma 

Macoma cerina cr"B"I Adams, 1845 A waxy^ macoma 

Macoma constricta (Bruguiere, 1 792) A constricted macoma 

Macoma "crassula (Deshayes, 1855) A,Ac,P thick macoma 

Macoma "dexioptera Baxter, 1977 P rightwinged macoma 

Macoma elimata Dunnill and Coan, 1 968 P file macoma 

Macoma expansa Carpenter, 1 864 P expanded macoma 

Macoma extenuata Dall, 1900 A extended macoma 

Macoma indentata Carpenter, 1 864 P indented macoma 

Macoma inquinata (Deshayes, 1855) P stained macoma 

Macoma lama Bartsch, 1929 P,Ac Aleutian macoma 

Macoma leptonoidea Dall, 1895 P lepton macoma 

Macoma limula Dall, 1895.. A little file macoma 

Macoma lipara Dall, 1916 P sleek macoma 

Macoma loveni (Jensen, 1905) A,Ac,P Loven macoma 

Macoma middendorffi Dall, 1884. P Middendorff macoma 

Macoma " mitchelli Dall, 1895 A Mitchell macoma 

Macoma moesta alaskana (Dall, 1900) P Alaskan macoma 

Macoma moesta moesta (Deshayes, 1855) A,P,Ac. flat macoma 

Macoma nasuta (Conrad, 1837) P bent-nose macoma 

Macoma obliqua (Sowerby, 1817) P oblique macoma 

Macoma phenax Dall, 1900 A. phenax macoma 

Macoma pseudomera Dall and Simpson, 1901 ....... A mera-like macoma 

Macoma pulleyi Boyer, 1969 A Pulley macoma 

Macoma sec ta (Conrad, 1 8 37) P white sand macoma 

Macoma tageliformis Dall, 1900 A tagelus-like macoma 

Macoma tenta (Say7"1 834) A tenta macoma 

Macoma yoldiformis Carpenter, 1864 P yoldia-shaped macoma 

Strigilla carnaria (Linnaeus, 1 758) A large strigilla 

Strigilla gabbi Olsson and McGinty, 1958 A. Gabb strigilla 

Strigilla mirabilis (Philippi, 1841) A white strigilla 

Strigilla pisif or mis (Linnaeus, 1758) A pea strigilla 

Strigilla producta Tryon, 1870 A ovate strigilla 

Strigilla pseudocarnaria Boss, 1969 A false strigilla 

Strigilla Surinam ens is Boss, 1 972 A Surinam strigilla 

Tellidora cristata (Recluz, 1842) A white-crested tellin 

Tel Una aequistriata Say, 1 824 A lintea tellin 

Tellina agilis Stimpson, 1857 A northern dwarf tellin 

Tellina alternata Say, 1822 A alternate tellin 

Tellina americana Dall, 1900 A American dwarf tellin 

Tellina angulosa Gmelin, 1791 A angulate tellin 

Tellina bodegensis Hinds, 1845 P Bodega tellin 

Tellina candeana d'Orbigny, 1842 A Cande tellin 

Tellina carpenteri Dall, 1900 P Carpenter tellin 

Tellina colorata Dall, 1900 A tinted tellin 

Tellina consobrina d'Orbigny, 1842 A consobrine tellin 

Tellina cristallina Spengler, 1798 A crystal tellin 

Tellina euvitrea Boss, 1 964 A shiny tellin 

Tellina exerythra Boss, 1964 A. bloodless tellin 

Tellina Tausta Pulteney, 1799 A faust tellin 

Tellina gouldii Hanley, 1846 A.l cuneate dwarf tellin 

Tellina guildingii Hanley, 1844 A Guilding tellin 

Tellina ldaT DalT, 1891 P Ida tellin 

Tellina iris Say, 1822 A iris tellin 

Tellina juttingae Altena, 1965 A Jutting tellin 

Tellina laevigata' Linnaeus, 1758 A smooth tellin 

76 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 A rose petal tellin 

Tellina listeri Roding, 1798 A speckled tellin 

Tellina lutea Wood, 1828 P,Ac Alaskan great tellin 

Tellina magna Spengler, 1798 A great tellin 

Tellina mart inicens is d'Orbigny, 1 842 A Martinique tellin 

Tellina mera Say, 1834 A mera tellin 

Tellina meropsis Pall, 1900 P oval tellin 

Tellina modesta (Carpenter, 1864) P plain tellin 

Tellina nitens C. B. Adams, 1845 A shiny dwarf tellin 

Tellina nuculoides (Reeve, 1854) P salmon tellin 

Tellina pa ram era Boss, 1 964 A mera-like tellin 

Tellina persica Dall and Simpson, 1901 A apricot tellin 

Tellina probina Boss, 1 964 A slandered tellin 

Tellina punicea Born, 1778 A watermelon tellin 

Tellina radiata Linnaeus, 1758 A sunrise tellin 

Tellina similis Sowerby, 1806 A candystick tellin 

Tellina squamifera Deshayes, 1855 A eastern crenulate tellin 

Tellina sybaritica Dall, 1881 A sybaritic tellin 

Tellina tampaensis Conrad, 1 866 A Tampa tellin 

Tellina tenella Verrill, 1874 A tenella tellin 

Tellina texana Dall, 1900 A Say tellin 

Tellina versicolor DeKay, 1843 A many-colored tellin 

Tellina vespuciana (d'Orbigny, 1842) A Vespuccian tellin 


Donax californicus Conrad, 1837 P Calif ornian donax 

Donax gouldii Dall, 1921 P Gould donax 

Donax texasianius Philippi, 1847 A Texas donax 

Donax variabilis Say, 1822 A coquina 

Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) A giant false donax 


Asaph is deflorate (Linnaeus, 1 758) A gaudy asaphis 

Gari calif ornica (Conrad, 1849) P Californian sunsetclam 

Gari fucata (Hinds, 1845) P painted sunsetclam 

Heterodonax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) A small false donax 

Heterodonax pacificus (Conrad, 1837) P Pacific false donax 

Nuttallia nuttallii (Conrad, 1837) P Nuttall mahogany clam 

Sanguinolaria cruenta (Lightfoot, 1786) A operculate sanguin 

Sanguinolaria sangulnblenta (Gmelin, 1791) A Atlantic sanguin 


Abra aequalis (Say, 1822) A Atlantic abra 

A bra lioica TDaU, 1881) A little abra 

Abra longicallis americana 

Verrill and Bush, 1898 A,Ac American abra 

Cumingia californica Conrad, 1837 P Californian cumingia 

Cumingia coarctata Sowerby, 1833 A southern cumingia 

Cumingia tellinoides (Conrad, 1831) A tellinlike cumingia 

Semele beUastriata (Conrad, 1837) A cancellate semele 

Semele decisa (Conrad, 1 8 37) P clipped semele 

Semele incongrua Carpenter, 1864 P incongruous semele 

Semele proficua (Pulteney, 1799) A Atlantic semele 

Semele pulchra (Sowerby, 1832) P beautiful semele 

Semele purpurascens (Gmelin, 1791) A purplish semele 

Semele rubropicta Dall, 1871 P rose-painted semele 

Semele "Fupico la Dall, 1915 P rock semele 

Semelina nuculoides (Conrad, 1841) A nucula-like semele 

Theora lubrica Gould, 1861 P Asian theora 


Solecurtus cumingianus Dunker, 1861 A corrugated solecur ted 

Solecurtus sanctaemarthae d'Orbigny,! 842 A St. Martha solecurted 

Tagelus aTfinis (C. B. Adams, 1852) P neighbor jackknife 

Tagelus californianus (Conrad, 1837) P Californian jackknife 

Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794) A purplish jackknife 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 77 


Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) A stout jackknife 

Tagelus sub teres (Conrad, 1837) P lesser jackknife 


Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Conrad, 1831) A Conrad false mussel 

Mytilopsis sallei (Recluz, 1849) A Domingo false mussel 


Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1 767) A ocean quahog 

Bernard in idae 

Bernardina bakeri Dall, 1910 P Baker bernardina 

Halodraka~salmonea (Carpenter, 1864) P salmon halodraka 

Halodraka subtrigona (Carpenter, 1857) P subtrigonal halodraka 


Coralliophaga coralliophaga (Gmelin, 1791) A coral clam 


Vesicomya vesica (Dall, 1886) A false mya 


Meiocardia agassizii Dall, 1889 A ox-heart clam 


Polymesoda caroliniana (Bosc, 1801) A Carolina marshclam 

Polymesoda maritima (d'Orbigny, 1842). A Florida marshclam 


Agriopoma texasiana (Dall, 1 892) A Texas venus 

Amiantis callosa (Conrad, 1837) P white venus 

Anomalocardia auberiana (d'Orbigny, 1842) A pointed venus 

Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) A Carib pointed venus 

Callista eucymata (Dall, 1890) A . .glory-of-the-seas 

Chione californiensis (Broderip, 1835) P Californian venus 

Chione cancellata (Linnaeus, 1767) A cross-barred venus 

Chione clenchi Pulley, 1952 A Clench venus 

Chione TTuctifraga (Sowerby, 1853) P smooth venus 

Chione grus (Holmes, 1858) A gray pygmy venus 

Chione intapurpurea (Conrad, 1 8 49) A lady-in-waiting venus 

Chione latillrata (Conrad, 1841) A imperial venus 

Chione paphia (Linnaeus, 1767) A king venus 

Chione pubera (Bory Saint-Vincent, 1827) A downy venus 

Chione pygmaea (Lamarck, 1818) A white pygmy venus 

Chione undatella (Sowerby, 1835) P frilled venus 

Circomphalus strigillinus (Dall, 1 902) A empress venus 

Compsomyax subdlaphana (Carpenter, 1864) P milky venus 

Cyclinella tenuis (Recluz, 1852) A thin cyclinella 

Dosinia discus (Reeve, 1850) A disk dosinia 

Dosinia elegans Conrad, 1843 A elegant dosinia 

Gemma gemma (Totten, 1834) A,P amethyst gemclam 

Globivenus callimorphus (Dall, 1902) A lily venus 

G"lobivenus fordi (YaTesT 1890) P Ford venus 

Gouldia cerina (C. B. Adams, 1845) A. Gould clam 

Humilaria kennerleyi (Reeve, 1863) P Kennerley venus 

Irusella lamellifer (Conrad, 1837). P lamellar venus 

Liocyma fluctuosa (Gould, 1841) A,P wavy liocyma 

Liocyma viridis Dall, 1871 Ac,P green liocyma 

Macrocallista macula ta (Linnaeus, 1758) A calico clam 

Macrocallista nimbosa (Lightfoot, 1786) A sunray venus 

Mercenaria campechiensis (Grnelin, 1791) A southern quahog 

Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758) A,P northern quahog 

78 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 


Nutricola confusa (Gray, 1982) P confusing dwarf venus 

Nutricola' cymata (Pall, 1913) P wavy dwarf venus 

Nutricola tantilla (Gould, 1853) P trifling dwarf venus 

Parastarte triquetra (Conrad, 1846) A brown gemclam 

Pitar albidus (Gmelin, 1791) A white pitar 

Pitar arestus (Pall and Simpson, 1 902) A pleasing pitar 

Pitar cordatus (Schwengel, 1951) A Schwengel pitar 

Pitar fulminatus (Menke, 1828) A lightning pitar 

Pitar morrhuanus Linsley, 1848 A false quahog 

Pitar newcombianus (Gabb, 1865) P Newcomb pitar 

Pitar pilula Rehder, 1943 A little ball pitar 

Pitar simpsoni (Pall, 1895) A Simpson pitar 

Pitar zonatus (Pall, 1902) A zoned pitar 

Periglypta listeri (Gray, 1838) A princess venus 

Protothaca granule ta (Gmelin, 1791) A beaded venus 

Protothaca laciniata (Carpenter, 1 864) P fringed littleneck 

Protothaca staminea (Conrad, 1 8 37) P Pacific littleneck 

Protothaca tenerrima (Carpenter, 1857) P thin-shelled littleneck 

Psephidia lordi (Baird, 1 863) P Lord dwarf venus 

Psephidia' ovahs Pall, 1 902 P oval dwarf venus 

Psephidia stephensae Hertlein and Grant, 1972 P Stephen dwarf venus 

Saxidomus giganteus (Peshayes, 1839) P butter clam 

Saxidomus nuttalli Conrad, 1837 P Washington clam 

Tapes philippinarum 

(Adams and Reeve, 1850) 1/ P Japanese littleneck 

Tivela abaconis Pall, 1 902 A Abaco tivela 

Tivela floridana Rehder, 1939 A Florida tivela 

Tivela mactroides (Born, 1 778) A trigonal tivela 

Tivela stultorum (Mawe, 1823) P pismo clam 

Transennella conradina Pall, 1 883 A Conrad transennella 

Transennella cubaniana (d Orbigny, 1842) A Cuban transennella 

Transennella stimpsoni Pall, 1902 A Stimpson transennella 

Ventricolaria rigida (Pillwyn, 1817) A rigid venus 

Ventricolaria rugatina (Heilprin, 1887) A queen venus 


Petricola californiensis 

Pilsbry and Lowe, 1 933 P Californian petricola 

Petricola lapicida (Gmelin, 1791) A boring petricola 

Petricola pholadiformis Lamarck, 1818 If A,P false angelwing 

Rupellaria cancellatum Verrill, 1885 A cancellate ruppellaria 

Rupellaria carditoides (Conrad, 1837) P hearty ruppellaria 

Rupellaria" tellimyalis (Carpenter, 1 864) P thin rupellaria 

Rupellaria typica (Jonas, 1844) A Atlantic rupellaria 


Cooperella atlantica Rehder, 1943 A Atlantic cooperclam 

Cooperella subdiaphana (Carpenter, 1864) P shiny cooperclam 



Cryptomya californica (Conrad, 1837) P false mya 

Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758 A,P softshell 

Mya profundior Grant and Gale, 1931 P deep mya 

Mya pseudoarenaria Schlesch, 1931 Ac, P false softshell 

Mya truncata Linnaeus, 1758 Ac,A,P truncate softshell 

Mya uzenensis Nomura and Zinbo, 1937 P Siberian mya 

Paramya subovata (Conrad, 1845) A subovate mya 

Platyodon cancellatus (Conrad, 1837) P boring mya 

Sphenia antillensis Pall and Simpson 1901 A Antillean sphenia 

Sphenia luticola (Valenciennes, 1846) P Pacific sphenia 

Sphenia ovoidea Carpenter, 1 864 P ovoid sphenia 

Sphenia tumida Lewis, 1968 A tumid sphenia 

V Introduced species 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 79 



Corbula barrattiana C. B. Adams, 1852 A Barratt corbula 

Corbula chittyana C. B. Adams, 1852 A snub-nose corbula 

Corbula contracta Say, 1822 A contracted corbula 

Corbula cubiana d'Orbigny, 1842 A Cuban corbula 

Corbula cymella Dall, 1 88 1 A cymella corbula 

Corbula dietziana C. B. Adams, 1852 A Dietz corbula 

Corbula kelseyi Dall, 1916 P Kelsey corbula 

Corbula krebsiana C. B. Adams, 1852 A Kreb corbula 

Corbula luteola Carpenter, 1 864 P California corbula 

Corbula nasuta Sowerby, 1833 P bent corbula 

Corbula nuci for mis Sowerby, 1833 P nut-shaped corbula 

Corbula porcella Dall, 1916 P threaded corbula 

Corbula swiftiana C. B. Adams, 1852 A Swift corbula 

Vancorbula operculata (Philippi, 1848) A. oval corbula 


Grippina californica Dall, 1912 P California grippclam 


Gastrochaena hians (Gmelin, 1791) A Atlantic rocellaria 

Gastrochaena ovata Sowerby, 1834 A ovate rocellaria 

Gastrochaena stimpsoni Tryon, 1 861 A Stimpson rocellaria 

Spengleria rostra ta (Spengler, 1783) A Atlantic spengler 


Cyrtodaria kurriana Dunker, 1861 A,P,Ac Kurr propellerclam 

Cyrtodaria siliqua (Spengler, 1793) A northern propellerclam 

Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus, 1767) A,P,Ac Arctic saxicave 

Hiatella azaria (Dall, 1881) A Azar saxicave 

Hiatella pholadis (Linnaeus, 1771) P,A,Ac pholad saxicave 

Hiatella striata Fleuriau, 1802 Ac striate saxicave 

Panomya ampla Dall, 1898 P ample flatmya 

Panomya arctica (Lamarck, 1818) Ac,A,P Arctic flatmya 

Panomya beringiana Dall, 1916 P Bering Sea flatmya 

Panopea abrupta (Conrad, 1849) P gooeyduck 

Panopea bitruncata Conrad, 1 872 A Atlantic gooeyduck 

Saxicavella pacifica Dall, 1916 P little saxicave 


Barnea subtruncata (Sowerby, 1834) P Pacific mud piddock 

Barnea truncata (Say, 1822) A Atlantic mud piddock 

Chaceia ovoidea (Gould, 1851) P wart-necked piddock 

Cyrtopleura costata (Linnaeus, 1758) A. angelwing 

Diplothyra smithii Tryon, 1862 A Atlantic shell-borer 

Jouannetia quillingi Turner, 1955 A Quilling borer 

Martesia cuneiform is (Say, 1822) A wedge-shaped martesia 

Martesia Iragilis Verrill and Bush, 1890 A,P fragile martesia 

Martesia striata (Linnaeus, 1 758) A striate martesia 

Nettastomella japonica (Yokoyama, 1920) P northern rostrate piddock 

Nettastomella rostrata (Valenciennes, 1846) P rostrate piddock 

Parapholas californica (Conrad, 1837) P scale-sided piddock 

Penitella conradi Valenciennes, 1846 P abalone piddock 

Penitella fitchi Turner, 1 955 P leafy piddock 

Penitella gabbii "(Tryon, 1863)," auctt P Tryon piddock 

Penitella "kamakurensis 

(Yokoyama, 1922)," auctt P blunt-tipped piddock 

Penitella penita (Conrad, 1837)... P flap-tipped piddock 

Penitella turnerae Evans and Fisher, 1966 P Turner piddock 

Pholas campechiensis Gmelin, 1791 A Campeche angelwing 

Xylophaga atlantica H. G. Richards, 1942 A Atlantic woodeater 

Xylophaga washingtona Bartsch, 1921 P Washington woodeater 

Zirfaea crispata (Linnaeus, 1758) A great piddock 

Zirfaea pilsbryi Lowe, 1931 P rough piddock 

80 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 



Bankia carinata (Gray, 1827) A carina te shipworm 

Bankia fimbria tula Moll and Roch, 1931 A fimbriate shipworm 

Bankia gouldi Bartsch, 1908 A,P Gould shipworm 

Bankia setacea (Tryon, 1863) P feathery shipworm 

Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages, 1849) A,P black-tipped shipworm 

Nototeredo knoxi (Bartsch, 1917) A Knox shipworm 

Nototeredo norvagicus (Spengler, 1792) A Norwegian shipworm 

Psiloteredo megotera (Hanley, 1848) A big-eared shipworm 

Teredo bartschi Clapp, 1923 A Bartsch shipworm 

Teredo navalis Linnaeus, 1758 A,P common shipworm 

Teredora malleolus (Turton, 1822) A malleated shipworm 


Panacea a rata (Verrill and Smith, 1881) A panacea clam 


Agriodesma saxicola (Baird, 1863) P rock entodesma 

EntodesmTpictum (Sowerby, 1834) P painted entodesma 

Lyonsia arenosa (Moller, 1842) A,P,Ac sandy lyonsia 

Lyonsia Feana (d'Orbigny, 1842) A pearly lyonsia 

Lyonsia brae tea ta (Gould, 1850) P scaly lyonsia 

Lyonsia calif ornica Conrad, 1837 P California lyonsia 

Lyonsia granulifera" Verrill and Bush, 1898 A granulated lyonsia 

Lyonsia hyalina Conrad, 1831 A glassy lyonsia 

Lyonsia nesiotes Dall, 1915 P island lyonsia 

Lyonsia striata Montagu, 1815 A striate lyonsia 

Mytilimeria nuttalli Conrad, 1837 P Nuttall bottleclam 


Pandora arenosa Conrad, 1834 A sand pandora 

Pandora bilirata Conrad, 1855 P bilirate pandora 

Pandora bushiana Dall, 1886 A Bush pandora 

Pandora filosa (Carpenter, 1864) P threaded pandora 

Pandora glacialis Leach, 1819 Ac,A,P glacial pandora 

Pandora gouldiana Dall, 1886 A Gould pandora 

Pandora inflata Boss and Merrill, 1 965 A inflated pandora 

Pandora inornata Verrill and Bush, 1898 A inornate pandora 

Pandora punctata Conrad, 1837 P punctate pandora 

Pandora trilineata Say, 1822 A Say pandora 

Pandora wardiana A. Adams, 1859 P Ward pandora 


Asthenothaerus hemphilli Dall, 1886 A Hemphill thracia 

Asthenothaerus villosior Carpenter, 1864 P hairy thracia 

Bushia elegans (Dall, 1886) A elegant bushia 

Cyathodonata dubiosa Dall, 1915 P doubtful thracia 

Cyathodonta semirugosa (Reeve, 1 859) A Carribbean wavy thracia 

Thracia beringi Dall, 1915 P Bering thracia 

Thracia challlsiana Dall, 1915 P Challis thracia 

Thracia conradi Couthouy, 1838 A Conrad thracia 

Thracia corbuloides Blainville, 1824 A corbula-like thracia 

Thracia ciirta Conrad, 1837 P short thracia 

Thracia devexa G. O. Sars, 1 878 P, A, Ac sloping thracia 

Thracia distorta Montagu, 1808 A distorted thracia 

Thracia morrisoni R. Petit, 1 964 A Morrison thracia 

Thracia myopsis Moller, 1842 A,P,Ac Arctic thracia 

Thracia phaseolina Lamarck, 1822 A kidney-bean thracia 

Thracia rugose Lamarck, 1818 A rugose thracia 

Thracia septentrional is Jeffreys 1 872 A northern thracia 

Thracia stimpsoni Dall, 1886 A Stimpson thracia 

Thracia trapezoides Conrad 1849 P trapezoidal thracia 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 81 



Halistrepta sulcata (Pall, 1904) . . P silicate spoon 

Periploma affine Verrill and Bush, 1898 A related spoon 

Penploma aleuticum (Krause, 1885) A Aleutic spoon 

Periploma anguiliferum (Phillippi, 1847) A angled spoon 

Periploma discus Stearns, 1891 P round spoon 

Periploma" leanum (Conrad, 1831) A Lea spoon 

Periploma margeriteceum (Lamarck, 1801) A unequal spoon 

Periploma papyratium (Say, 1822) A paper spoon 

Periploma* planiusculum Sowerby, 1834 P flat spoon 

Periploma tenerum Fischer, 1882 A delicate spoon 


Poromya albida Dall, 1886 A white poromya 

Poromya elongate Dall, 1886 A elongated poromya 

Poromya granulate (Nyst and Westendorp, 1839) . Ac, A granular poromya 

Poromya rostra ta Rehder, 1 943 A rostrate poromya 

Poromya trosti Strong and Hertlein, 1937 P Trost poromya 


Halicardia flexuosa (Verrill and Smith, 1881) A bent halicardia 

Haliris aequacostata (Howard, 1 950) P even-ribbed verticordia 

Policordia insculpta (Jeffreys, 1881) A sculptureless policord 

Verticordia acuticostata Phillipi, 1884 A sharp-ribbed verticordia 

Verticordia fischeriana Dall, 1 88 1 A Fischer verticordia 

Verticordia ornata (d'Orbigny, 1842) A,P ornate verticordia 

Verti cordia seguenzae Dall, 1 886 A Seguenza verticordia 

Verticordia trapezoides Seguenza, 1876 A trapezoidal verticordia 

Verticordia woodii E. A. Smith, 1885 A Wood verticordia 


Cardiomya balboae (Dall, 1916) P Balboa card io my a 

Cardiomya californica (Dall, 1886) P Californian cardiomya 

Cardiomya costata (Sowerby, 1834) P costate cardiomya 

Cardiomya costellata (Deshayes, 1837) A costate cardiomya 

Cardiomya glypta (Bush, 1885) A carved cardiomya 

Cardiomya isolirata Bernard, 1969 P Urate cardiomya 

Cardiomya oldroydi (Dall, 1924) P Oldroyd cardiomya 

Cardiomya ornatissima (d'Orbigny, 1842) A ornate cardiomya 

Cardiomya pectinate (Carpenter, 1864) P pectinate cardiomya 

Cardiomya perrostrata (Dall, 1881) A rostrate cardiomya 

Cardiomya planetica (Dall, 1908) P planet cardiomya 

Cardiomya* striata (Jeffreys, 1876) Ac,A striate cardiomya 

Cuspidaria alternate d'Orbigny, 1846 A alternate cuspidarie 

Cuspiderie glecielis (G. O. Sars, 1878). A,Ac,P glacial cuspidaria 

Cuspidaria jeffreysi (Dall, 1881) A Jeffrey cuspidarie 

Cuspidaria media Verrill and Bush, 1898 A media cuspidarie 

Cuspidarie microrhina Dall, 1886 A small-nosed cuspidaria 

Cuspidaria obese (Loven, 1846) Ac,A obese cuspidaria 

Cuspidaria pe rap ode me Bernerd, 1969 P Celifornien cuspiderie 

Cuspidaria pellucida Stimpson, 1853 A translucent cuspiderie 

Cuspidaria* rostrate (Spengler, 1793) Ac, A rostrete cuspiderie 

Cuspiderie subglecielis Dell, 1913 A subglecial cuspidaria 

Leiomya cleviculete (Dell, 1881) A clavicle myonera 

Myonera Temellifera (Dall, 1881) A shingled myonera 

Plectodon sceber Cerpenter, 1 864 P rough plectodon 

Plectodon granulatus (Dall, 1881) A grainy plectodon 

82 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 




De3haye8Jella percraasa (Dall, 1894) P 

Hanleyella oldroydi (Dall, 1919) P 

Leptochiton alveolus (G.O. Sara in Loven, 1846) . .(A) ,Ac,P 

Leptochiton cancellatus (Sowerby, 1839) A.... Arctic cancel late chiton 

Leptochiton nexus Carpenter, 1864 P 

Leptochiton rugatus (Pilsbry, 1892) P 


Hanleya hanleyi (Bean, 1844) A eastern hanleya 

Hanleya mendicaria (Mighels and C.B. Adams, 1842). A Maine hanleya 


Laminoplax dalli (Kaas, 1957) A 


Callistochiton asthenes (S.S. Berry, 1919) P 

Callistochiton crassicostatus Pilsbry, 1892. P 

Callistochiton Tecoratus Pilsbry, 1892. P 

Callistochiton palmulatus Carpenter _in Dall, 1879. P 

Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira, 1976 A Portobelo chiton 

Callistochiton shuttleworthianus Pilsbry, 1892.... A eastern orange chiton 

Dendrochiton gothicus (Carpenter, 1863) P 

Dendrochiton psaltes S.S. Berry, 1963 P 

Dendrochiton semiliratus S.S. Berry, 1927 P 

Dendrochiton thamnoporus S.S. Berry, 1911 P 

Ischnochiton allyni Ferreira, 1977 P 

Ischnochiton dilatosculptus Kaas, 1982 A 

Ischnochiton eTythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845) A multi-hued chiton 

Ischnochiton hartmeyeri Thiele, 1910 A multi-ringed chiton 

Ischnochiton interstinctus (Gould, 1846) P 

Ischnochiton lividus Middendorff, 1847 P 

Ischnochiton newcombi Pilsbry, 1892 P 

Ischnochiton regularis (Carpenter, 1855) P 

Ischnochiton scrobiculatus Middendorff, 1847 P 

Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828) A 

Ischnochiton trif idus Carpenter, 1864 P 

Lepidochitona aleutica (Dall, 1879) P 

Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Lepidochitona dentiens dentiens (Gould, 1846) P 

Lepidochitona dentiens cryptica Kues , 1974 P 

Lepidochitona f lectens (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Lepidochitona hartwegTi (Carpenter, 1855) P 

Lepidochitona heathii TPilsbry, 1898).. P 

Lepidochitona keepiana (S.S. Berry, 1948) P 

Lepidochitona liozonis" (Dall and Simpson, 1901)... A Caribbean red chiton 

Lepidochitona lobium (S.S. Berry, 1925) P 

Lepidochitona lowei' lowei (Pilsbry, 1918) P 

Lepidochitona lowei f ackenthallae 

(S.S. Berry, 1919). P 

Lepidochitona sharp ii (Pilsbry, 1896) P 

Lepidozona cooper i (Dall, 1879) P 

Lepidozona mertensii (Middendorff, 1847) P 

Lepidozona pectinuTata 

(Carpenter _in Pilsbry, 1893) P 

Lepidozona retiporosa (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Lepidozona scabricostata (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Lepidozona ■errata (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Lepidozona sinudentata 

(Carpenter _in Pilsbry, 1892). . .P 

Lepidozona willetti (S.S. Berry, 1917) P 

Nuttallina californica (Reeve, 1847) P 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 83 

Nuttallina thomasi Pilsbry, 1898 P. . . 

Schizoplax"brandtii (Middendorf f , 1846) P 

Schizoplax multicolor Dall, 1920 P 

Stenoplax conspicua (Pall, 1879). . P 

Stenoplax corrugata (Pilsbry, 1892) P 

Stenoplax fallax (Pilsbry, 1892) P „ 

Stenoplax floridana (Pilsbry, 1892) A Florida slender chiton 

Stenoplax heathiana S.S. Berry, 1946 P 

Stenoplax producta (Reeve, 1847) A 

Stenoplax regulata (Sowerby, 1832) .A, (P) rose chiton 

Stenosemus albus (Linnaeus, 1767) A,P northern white chiton 

Stenosemus exaratus (G.O. Sars, 1878) A 

Tonicella beringensis Yakovleva, 1952 P 

Tonicella blaneyi Dall, 1905 A 

Tonicella granulata Yakovleva, 1952 P 

TonicelTa" insignis (Reeve, 1847) P 

Tonicella lineata (Wood, 1815) P 

Tonicella marmorea (Fabricius, 1780) A,P 

TonicelTa" rubra (Linnaeus, 1767) A,Ac,P 

Tonicella saccharina Dall, 1879 P 

Tonicella sitkensis (Middendorf f , 1846) P. 

Tonicella submarmorea (Middendorf f, 1846) P. 

TonicelTa undocarulea Sirenko, 1973 P 


Calloplax janeirensis (Gray, 1828) A... West Indian ribbed chiton 

Chaetopleura apiculata (Say, 1834) A eastern beaded chiton 

Chaetopleura gemma Carpenter in Dall, 1879 P 

Chaetopleura lanuginosa 

(Carpenter in Dall, 1879) P 

Chaetopleura scabricula (Sowerby, 1832) P 


Amicula amiculata (Pallas, 1786) P 

Amicula pallasii (Middendorf f, 1846) P 

Amicula vestita (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) P 

Ceratozona squalida (C.B. Adams, 1845) A eastern surf chiton 

Mopalia acuta (Carpenter, 1855) P 

Mopalia ciliata (Sowerby, 1840) P. 

Mopalia cirrata S.S. Berry, 1919 P, 

Mopalia cithara S.S. Berry, 1951 P. 

Mopalia egret ta S.S. Berry, 1919 P, 

Mopalia hindsi (Reeve, 1847) P. 

Mopalia imporcata Carpenter, 1864 P, 

Mopalia laevior Pilsbry, 1918 P. 

Mopalia lignosa (Gould, 1846) P, 

Mopalia lionotus Pilsbry, 1918 „ P. 

Mopalia lowei Pilsbry, 1918 P, 

Mopalia muscosa (Gould, 1846) P. 

Mopalia phorminx S.S. Berry, 1919 P. 

Mopalia porifera Pilsbry, 1892 P. 

Mopalia recurvans Barnawell, 1960 P, 

Mopalia' s inuata ""C"arpenter , 1864 P. 

Mopalia spectabilis Cowan and Cowan, 1977 P 

Mopalia swanii (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Placiphorella borealis Pilsbry, 1892 P boreal veiled chiton 

Placiphorella pacifica S.S. Berry, 1919 P Pacific veiled chiton 

Placiphorella rufa S.S. Berry, 1917 P red veiled chiton 

Placiphorella stimpsoni (Gould, 1859). P 

Placiphorella velata Dall, 1879 P veiled chiton 


Katherina tunicata (Wood, 1815) P black katy 


Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791) A.... West Indian fuzzy chiton 

84 SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 

Chiton tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758 A. . . .West Indian green chiton 

Tonic ia*"pustul if era Dali, 1919 P.. 

Tonicia schrammi (Shuttleworth, 1856) A go Id- flecked chiton 


Acanthochitona andersoni Watt era, 1981 A.... smooth glass-hair chiton 

Acanthochitona angel ica~ Dall, 1919 P 

Acanthochitona avicula (Carpenter, 1864) P 

Acanthochitona balesae Abbott, 1954 A... slender glass-hair chiton 

Acanthochitona' hemphiTli (Pilsbry, 1893) A red glass-hair chiton 

Acanthochitona imperatrix Watters, 1981 P 

Acanthochitona pygmaea (Pilsbry, 1893) A... striate glass-hair chiton 

Cryptochiton stelleri (Middendorff , 1847).. P giant Pacific chiton 

Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall, 1889) A white-barred chiton 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE - February, 1985 85 





CONUS spurius atlanticus 


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St. Petersburg Beach, FL 33706 

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